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Nederlands

73 (2) 119-127

Titel: 
A new test for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep: determination of ovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (OVPAG) concentration by means of a homologous radioimmunoassy
Auteur(s): 
S. VERBERCKMOES, L. VANDAELE, S. DE CAT, B. EL AMIRI, J. SULON, L. DUCHATEAU, A. DE KRUIF, J. F. BECKERS, A. VAN SOOM
Samenvatting: 
Early pregnancy diagnosis is a useful tool in the management of sheep breeding. In this study different methods for pregnancy diagnosis in sheep, including the assessment of ovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins (ovPAGs), are briefly discussed. Subsequently, in a field trial the use of transrectal ultrasound is compared with the assessment of the concentration of ovPAGs for early pregnancy diagnosis. At the start of the breeding season in 2002, 192 Texel ewes at 4 different farms were synchronized and afterwards mated or artificially inseminated (AI). At the moment of synchronization (D-14) and at 25 (D25), 35 (D35) and 45 (D45) days after mating/AI, transrectal ultrasound was performed and blood was collected by jugular vein puncture. The ovPAG concentration in the plasma of the ewes was measured by means of a homologous radioimmunoassay (RIA). The specificity of transrectal ultrasound was 85%, and the sensitivity was 92% at D25, 94% at D35 and 95% at D45. The specificity of the homologous RIA was 100%, and the sensitivity was 99% at D25, and 100% at D35 and D45. Higher ovPAG concentrations were detected at D35 and D45 than at D25 (P<0.01). An interesting finding was that within the same breed (Texel), ovPAG concentrations were significantly affected by the farm (P<0.01). In conclusion, determination of ovPAG concentration by means of homologous RIA can be used for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep and is more reliable than transrectal ultrasound at 25, 35 or 45 days of gestation.
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pp 119-127
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73 (2) 112-118

Titel: 
Postpartum anoestrus in high yielding dairy cows
Auteur(s): 
G. OPSOMER, M. CORYN, A. DE KRUIF
Samenvatting: 
Worldwide dairy herd fertility has been stated to decline drastically during the latest decades leading to significantly increased calving intervals. The principal likely component of an increased calving interval is the prolongation of the interval parturition-insemination. The latter might be caused by problems related to the modern high yielding dairy cow herself (postpartum endocrinopathies leading to ovarian disturbances), or may reflect serious shortcomings in the management (inadequate heat detection). While bovine practitioners are frequently faced with this problem nowadays, they should be fully aware of the underlying causes of this problem in order to be able to help their clients to attain economically optimal calving intervals. As modern herd health control programs mainly focus on the adjustment of management practices on the herd instead of advising a widespread use of drugs, practitioners should be fully aware of the management practices which influence overall fertility and resumption of ovarian activity in peculiar. The present article reviews the current state of knowledge about the postpartum anoestrus problem in high yielding dairy cows, and hence may serve as a practical guide for the practitioners who want to advice their clients on how to tackle this major fertility problem.
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pp 112-118
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73 (3) 176-181

Titel: 
The use of internal markers to determine metabolizable energy and digestibility of diets in the African Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus)
Auteur(s): 
J. SALES, L. DESCHUTTER, G.P.J. JANSSENS
Samenvatting: 
Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) were evaluated as internal markers in digestibility studies with African Grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus). Apparent metabolizable energy, corrected for nitrogen (N) retention (AMEn), nitrogen retention (NR), and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and crude fat of a commercial seed mixture, sunflower seed, and a commercial pelleted parrot diet were determined using either the method of total collection of feed and excreta or using the marker technique. Both AIA and ADL presented unrealistic negative digestibility values for whole seed diets due to the higher concentration of marker found in the calculated feed intake than in the excreta. This study illustrates the necessity to determine nutrient concentration in feed refusals in digestibility studies with parrots due to the feeding habits of these birds. However, AIA as marker produced digestibility values that, although higher (P < 0.05), showed similar or less variation than the method of total collection when applied to pelleted parrot diets in which feed refusals contain roughly the same nutrient concentration as the feed offered.
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pp 176-181
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73 (3) 170-175

Titel: 
Comparision of slaughter characteristics of "S" and "E"class slaughter bulls of the double-muscled Belgian blue beef breed using a commercial cutting method
Auteur(s): 
F. COOPMAN, A. VAN ZEVEREN, S. DE SMET
Samenvatting: 
According to the SEUROP carcass classification system, double-muscled slaughter bulls of the Belgian Blue beef breed (DM-BBB) are usually classified either as "E" or as "S" carcasses. The large differences in price paid on the market for these two types cannot be explained on the basis of differences in carcass lean meat content resulting from standard dissection methods. In this study, commercial dissection was applied to evaluate the differences between “S” and “E” carcasses. It was concluded that the differences in the proportion of high and low quality meat could not explain the large price differentials. Other factors than carcass composition (size and shape of cuts, meat quality traits) are thus involved.
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pp 170-175
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73 (4) 269-273

Titel: 
Evaluation of the Schirmer tear test in clinically normal Turkish hunting dogs (Turkish Greyhound)
Auteur(s): 
F. ALKAN, C. IZCI, C. TEPELI, Y. KOC
Samenvatting: 
The aim of this study was to determine the normal values for the Schirmer tear test (STT) in Turkish Hunting Dogs. This was performed in order to facilitate the diagnosis of xerophthalmia or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS), which is characterized by deficiencies in tear production and the resulting abnormal STT. Fifteen Turkish Hunting Dogs (8 female and 7 male) were used in this study. The dogs ranged from 6 months to 9 years old (mean 3.6 +2.8) and the mean weight was 21.3 kg (13 to 27). The mean STT-1 and STT-2 values were 17.1 +3.7 mm per minute and 7.7 +2.8 mm per minute, respectively. Neither body weight nor age had a statistically significant effect on these values. There were significant differences in both STT-1 and STT-2 values between females and males (p<0.05), as well as daily and weekly fluctuations for STT-1 and STT-2 values (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). This study has shown that the STT-1 and STT-2 values in the Turkish Hunting Dogs are normally distributed and are significantly affected by sex and by measurement sequences.
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pp 269-273
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73 (4) 260-268

Titel: 
The vaginal microflora and canine herpesvirus 1 antibody titers throughout the estrous cycle of breeding bitches
Auteur(s): 
B. FEYEN, A. VAN SOOM, H. NAUWYNCK, L. A. DEVRIESE, A. DECOSTERE, B. CATRY, J. DEWULF, A. DE KRUIF
Samenvatting: 
The objective of this study was to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the vaginal microflora during the estrous cycle of 34 bitches from kennels with and without fertility disorders, in order to study whether any particular bacterial species is isolated more often in the kennels of low fertility status in general or during a specific stage of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, a serological follow-up of CHV1 antibody titers was performed to determine whether seroconversion, as a result of (re)infection or reactivation, occurs during a particular stage of the estrous cycle and, if so, how it affects fertility. The number of bacteria isolated was significantly influenced by the stage of the estrous cycle. Bacterial counts were higher during pro-estrus and estrus. In the individual bitch the flora changed during the estrous cycle but when all samples were compared, no specific bacterial species could be associated with a given stage of the estrous cycle. No significant differences were found between bitches from kennels with and without reproductive disorders. In all but one bitch, the serum-neutralizing (SN) antibody titers to CHV1 did not change during the estrous cycle. In the one bitch that seroconverted, no effect on the fertility status was found. It was concluded that no correlation between the aerobic vaginal bacterial flora and/or CHV1 and fertility could be demonstrated.
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pp 260-268
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73 (5) 331-340

Titel: 
Survey van mondaandoeningen bij katten in Vlaanderen
Auteur(s): 
L. VERHAERT, C. VAN WETTER
Samenvatting: 
Een onderzoek naar de aanwezigheid van mondziekten bij 753 katten aangeboden voor algemeen onderzoek bijelf Vlaamse dierenartsen, wordt gepresenteerd. Slechts 87 van deze katten werden aangeboden voor een mond -aandoening. Het mogelijk effect van leeftijd, geslacht, voeding, ras en levensstijl op het voorkomen van deverschillende mondaandoeningen werd onderzocht. Uit de resultaten bleek dat de meeste katten uit het onderzoekleden aan parodontale aandoeningen (gingivitis, parodontitis), en dat parodontitis meer voorkwam bij ouderekatten dan bij jongere. Hoewel het hier een jonge populatie betrof (gemiddelde leeftijd 4,5 jaar), en er nietroutinematig gebruik werd gemaakt van radiografisch onderzoek, had één kat op vier last van resorptieve letsels(FORL). Andere ziekten die werden genoteerd, zijn congenitale/erfelijke aandoeningen, trauma, proliferaties enstomatitis. De resultaten van dit onderzoek tonen aan dat mondziekten zeer vaak voorkomen bij de kat en dat demond daarom veel meer aandacht zou moeten krijgen in de dagelijkse dierenartsenpraktijk.
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pp 331-340
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73 (5) 325-330

Titel: 
Evaluatie van een nieuwe genotyperingstest voor de codons 136-154-171 van het schapenprionproteïne (PRNP) gen met behulp van "Reverse Hybridization"
Auteur(s): 
H. DE BOSSCHERE, S. ROELS, C. RENARD, T. BRIERS, J. DE SLOOVERE, E. VANOPDENBOSCH
Samenvatting: 
Een nieuwe genotyperingstest voor de condons 136-154-171 van het schapenprionproteïne (PRNP) gen viadetectie van mutaties in het PrP-gen met behulp van “reverse hybridization” werd geëvalueerd op niet-gestoldbloed en hersenweefsel. In totaal werden 100 bloedstalen en 28 hersenstalen onderzocht. Al deze stalen werdendaarna geconfirmeerd met “denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis” en “real-time polymerase chain reaction”.De resultaten van deze drie testen kwamen zeer goed overeen. In dit artikel wordt kort het gebruik van deze nieuwegenotyperingstest besproken.
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pp 325-330
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74 (2) 140-145

Titel: 
The prevalence of antibodies against equine influenza virus, equine herpesviurs 1 and 4, equine arteritis and rhinovirus 1 and 2 in dutch standardbred horses
Auteur(s): 
C. VAN MAANEN, J. HELDENS, A.A. CULLINANE, R. VAN DEN HOVEN, M. WESTSTRATE
Samenvatting: 
A random cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted in 1996 by taking blood samples from 330 different standardbred horses on all racetracks in the Netherlands. This blood sampling took place on four consecutive days, with each horse being sampled only once. Samples were investigated for antibodies against several strains of equine influenza virus, equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4, equine arteritis virus, and equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2. A type specific gG ELISA was used to determine specific seroprevalences of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4. Influenza serology, using influenza A/equi/1 Prague/56 as an indicator virus for vaccination, demonstrated that 38 % of the horses were either unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated. Many of these horses appeared to have experienced an influenza A/equi-2 field infection. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies against both EHV1 and EHV4 were found in a high percentage of the samples. However, for EHV1 this high seroprevalence was putatively caused by cross-reacting EHV4 antibodies since, in a type-specific gG ELISA, the EHV1 seroprevalence was only 28%, as compared with a 99% seroprevalence for EHV4. High seroprevalences were also found for equine rhinovirus type 1 and for the equine arteritis virus, thus indicating the endemic nature of these viruses. Many of these infections may be subclinical. The seroprevalence of equine rhinovirus type 2 was surprisingly low. The possible relationship between viral infections and upper respiratory tract disease and/or inflammatory airway disease is discussed.
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pp 140-145
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74 (4) 288-293

Titel: 
Counting cementum growth lines in dogs (canis familiaris) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) as a means of age determination
Auteur(s): 
S. VAN LANCKER, K. VAN DEN BERGE, W. VAN DEN BROECK, P. SIMOENS
Samenvatting: 
Dental growth lines are often counted for age determination in feral animals that are living in the wild and are subject to seasonal variations. To assess whether or not this technique could also be used in domestic animals, the cementum growth lines of the canine and second premolar teeth were determined in 4 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) living in the natural habitat of Flanders, and in 7 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) that were kept in housing conditions. Dates of birth of all animals were registered. In the foxes a good correlation was found between the age of the animals and the number of cementum growth lines. In contrast, in domestic dogs the number of cementum lines was variable and could hardly be determined because the difference between primary and secondary lines was often uncertain. It was concluded that the count of cementum growth lines cannot be used for age assessment of dogs that are living in domestic conditions devoid of seasonal variations in food accessibility and weather conditions.
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pp 288-293
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