2000 - 69 (3)

Volume 69 (2000), nr. 3

69 (3) 197-206

Title: 
Epidemiologische bewaking van boviene spongiforme encefalopathie in België in 1998 (Dutch)
Author(s): 
Saegerman C., Dechamps P., Vanopdenbosch E., Roels S., Petroff K., Dufey J., Van Caenegem G., Devreese D., Varewyck H., De Craemere H., Desmedt I., Cormann A., Torck G., Hallet L., Hamelrijckx M., Leemans M., Vandersanden A., Peharpre D., Brochier B., Costy F., Muller P., Thiry E., Pastoret PP
pp 197-206
In practice

69 (3) 190-196

Title: 
OMENTOPEXY FOR CORRECTION OF RIGHT ABOMASAL DISPLACEMENT: RESULTS IN 135 COWS
Author(s): 
L. Vlaminck, M. Steenhaut, F. Gasthuys, A. Martens, P. Desmet, L. Van Brantegem, A. De Moor
Abstract: 
One hundred and thirty-five cows were surgically treated for correction of right displaced abomasum (RDA) using the right flank omentopexy technique. In 33 cows an abomasal dilatation was diagnosed. Abomasal volvulus was found in 99 animals and omaso-abomasal volvulus in 3. In-hospital mortality was 15% (n = 20). None of the cows with abomaso-omasal torsion survived. Ninety-seven percent (n = 32) of the cows with abomasal dilatation and 84% (n = 83) of the cows with abomasal volvulus were discharged from the clinic. Six months after surgery, 94% of the cows with abomasal dilatation had survived. This percentage fell to 88.5% after another half year. For cows with abomasal volvulus, these survival rates were 74% and 62%, respectively. Regardless of the type of abomasal dislocation, 77% of the total group of animals survived after six months and 66% after one year. Six months after surgery, good milk production was reported in 67% (n = 58) of the surviving cows; this figure rose to 91% of the surviving cows (n = 63) after 12 months.
Full text: 
pp 190-196
Original article(s)

69 (3) 181-189

Title: 
Endometritis bij de merrie (Dutch)
Author(s): 
P. VERVAET, O. ASPESLAGH, S. VAN DESSEL, A. DE KRUIF
pp 181-189
Review(s)

69 (3) 175-180

Title: 
Het belang van aangepaste dieetmaatregelen na sterilisatie en castratie bij de kat
Author(s): 
M. Hesta, J. Debraekeleer, G.P.J. Janssens, R. De Wilde
pp 175-180
Review(s)

69 (3) 168-174

Title: 
Echografische evaluatie van fractuurheling (Dutch)
Author(s): 
M. RISSELADA, H. VAN BREE
pp 168-174
Review(s)

69 (3) 159-167

Title: 
De overleving van sperma in de epididymis van de stier: een model voor spermaopslag in vitro? (Dutch)
Author(s): 
I. DE PAUW, A. VAN SOOM, S. VERBERCKMOES, A. DE KRUIF
pp 159-167
Review(s)

69 (3) 154-158

Title: 
Louis Willems (1822-1907). Founder of the protective inoculation against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, an evaluative summary
Author(s): 
C. Huygelen
Abstract: 
Louis Willems' name is intimately linked with the history of prophylactic immunization in the nineteenth century. When he obtained his medical degreein 1849 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia or lung sickness was raging among the cattle population in most European countries. The disease is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, but in the middle of the nineteenth century, during the battle between the miasmatists and the contagonistsmany doubted its contagiousness. From the start, Willems defended the contagiousness of the disease and noticed that animals that had survived an infection did not contract it a second time. He demonstrated that inoculation of the serous fluid from the lungs or from the pleural cavity of affected animals into healthy cattle led to pronounced local reactions. Later on, when these inoculated animals came into contact with diseased cattle they turned out to be immune. In his first trials he inoculated at the base of the tail or around the nostrils but this led to very severe reactions and frequently to death. He then started inoculating at the tip of the tail with muchbetter results. Most animals showed a more or less pronounced reaction at the inoculation site caused by the etiological agent itself. The tip of the tail was obviously a good choice; this was confirmed later by many authors and the procedure is still being used today in areas where the disease is still prevalent. Inoculation at other sites of the body, such as the neck or the dewlap, led to very severe reactions often followed bydeath. Willems also demonstrated that local inoculation at the tip of the tail not only immunized the animals against infection via the respiratory tract resulting from contact with diseased animals, but also against a second inoculation in the tail, in the neck or elsewhere. Material harvested from the inoculation site in the tail (so-called secondary "virus") could also be used as inoculum. Animals that showed no reaction to the first inoculation received a second inoculation after a few weeks. Not only in Willems' lifetime (by himself and by his contemporaries) was immunization as a result of inoculation repeatedly proved through experiment, but also later, in more recent trials. Failures were usually attributed to inoculation of already infected animals or to the use of badly stored or purulent inocula. Inoculation during the incubation period did not provide protection. The publication of his results created enormous interest in the matter in his country and abroad. in several countries commissions were founded, trials were initiated and several foreign observers came to visit Willems. In general his results were confirmed abroad, at least if the trials were conducted correctly; this was not always the case. A critical evaluation of Willems' work leads us to the conclusion that hisinitial concepts and results in the field of immunization were correct andlargely confirmed by the facts and the observations of others. As for one aspect Willems erred completely, that is when he claimed that the small corpuscles he had observed in the lesions were the causal agents of the disease. In most countries lung sickness was eradicated by sanitary measures and byslaughtering all infected cattle, but some countries such as Australia have combined Willems' inoculation procedure with other measures for a long time. Even today his method is still being used, for instance in Africa, but infectious lung material has now been replaced by inocula consisting of attenuated mycoplasma cultures. 
Full text: 
pp 154-158
memorial Willems

69 (3) 149-153

Title: 
La pleuropneumonie contagieuse bovine: historique, agent etiologique, aspects clinique et lesionnel
Author(s): 
A. LINDEN, D. DESMECHT
pp 149-153
memorial Willems

69 (3) 144-148

Title: 
Meer dan een deel van de keten: veeteelt in de 19de-eeuwse Belgische landbouweconomie (Dutch)
Author(s): 
L. VAN MOLLE
pp 144-148
memorial Willems