85 (2) pg 55

Title: 
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in birds: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity
Author(s): 
T. GOESSENS, G. ANTONISSEN, S. CROUBELS, P. DE BACKER, M. DEVREESE
Abstract: 

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prevent conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoidsby inhibiting the cyclo-oxygenase isoenzymes. In humans and animals, NSAIDs are primarilyused as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent in diseases of the joints, skeleton and muscles, fortreatment of abdominal pain and, to a lesser extent, for post-operative pain. The pharmacokinetics,pharmacodynamics and toxicity of NSAIDs strongly vary between types of NSAIDs, animal speciesand even within bird species (passerines, psittacines, raptors, waterfowl, galliformes and pigeons).Species-specific differences in pharmacokinetic processes (absorption, distribution, metabolization andexcretion) make it difficult to extrapolate results among the different bird species. Pharmacodynamicstudies demonstrate that effective doses are also species dependent, which in turn illustrates the importanceto perform pharmacodynamic studies in the animal of interest. Most side effects of NSAIDs inbirds are associated with nefrotoxicity, muscle necrosis and gastro-intestinal toxicity. It is important totake these pharmacological and toxicological characteristics into account when using NSAIDs in birds.

Full text: 
pp 055-062
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