2000 - 69 (3)

Volume 69 (2000), nr. 3

69 (3) 197-206

Titel: 
Epidemiologische bewaking van boviene spongiforme encefalopathie in België in 1998
Auteur(s): 
Saegerman C., Dechamps P., Vanopdenbosch E., Roels S., Petroff K., Dufey J., Van Caenegem G., Devreese D., Varewyck H., De Craemere H., Desmedt I., Cormann A., Torck G., Hallet L., Hamelrijckx M., Leemans M., Vandersanden A., Peharpre D., Brochier B., Costy F., Muller P., Thiry E., Pastoret PP
Samenvatting: 
In 1998 werden 6 runderen tussen de 54 en 71 maanden ouderdom, afkomstig van de provincies West-Vlaanderen (3 gevallen), Oost-Vlaanderen (2 gevallen) en Luik (1 geval), gediagnostiseerd als gevallen van boviene spongiforme encephalopathie (BSE). De hypotheses betreffende de oorsprong van de infectie op zijn de volgende : het optreden van sporadische gevallen zonder duidelijk definieerbare oorzaak; de mogelijke kruiscontaminatie tussen voeder voor monogastrische dieren met daarin dierlijk meel en voeder voor herkauwers waarin geen dierlijk meel is verwerkt en dit tijdens het fabricatieproces, de stockage, het transport of de distributie; het gebruik van dierlijk beendermeel in het voeder voor runderen geproduceerd voor de ban (van kracht vanaf 27/7/1994). Algemeen kan men dus stellen dat in België de aanwezigheid van gecontamineerd diermeel als risicofactor voor BSE niet kan worden uitgesloten. De oorsprong van deze diermelen kon nog niet gedetermineerd worden.
pp 197-206
Voor de praktijk

69 (3) 190-196

Titel: 
OMENTOPEXY FOR CORRECTION OF RIGHT ABOMASAL DISPLACEMENT: RESULTS IN 135 COWS
Auteur(s): 
L. Vlaminck, M. Steenhaut, F. Gasthuys, A. Martens, P. Desmet, L. Van Brantegem, A. De Moor
Samenvatting: 
One hundred and thirty-five cows were surgically treated for correction of right displaced abomasum (RDA) using the right flank omentopexy technique. In 33 cows an abomasal dilatation was diagnosed. Abomasal volvulus was found in 99 animals and omaso-abomasal volvulus in 3. In-hospital mortality was 15% (n = 20). None of the cows with abomaso-omasal torsion survived. Ninety-seven percent (n = 32) of the cows with abomasal dilatation and 84% (n = 83) of the cows with abomasal volvulus were discharged from the clinic. Six months after surgery, 94% of the cows with abomasal dilatation had survived. This percentage fell to 88.5% after another half year. For cows with abomasal volvulus, these survival rates were 74% and 62%, respectively. Regardless of the type of abomasal dislocation, 77% of the total group of animals survived after six months and 66% after one year. Six months after surgery, good milk production was reported in 67% (n = 58) of the surviving cows; this figure rose to 91% of the surviving cows (n = 63) after 12 months.
Volledige tekst: 
pp 190-196
Origine(e)l(e) artikel(en)

69 (3) 181-189

Titel: 
Endometritis bij de merrie
Auteur(s): 
P. VERVAET, O. ASPESLAGH, S. VAN DESSEL, A. DE KRUIF
pp 181-189
Overzichtsartikel(en)

69 (3) 175-180

Titel: 
Het belang van aangepaste dieetmaatregelen na sterilisatie en castratie bij de kat
Auteur(s): 
M. Hesta, J. Debraekeleer, G.P.J. Janssens, R. De Wilde
pp 175-180
Overzichtsartikel(en)

69 (3) 168-174

Titel: 
Echografische evaluatie van fractuurheling
Auteur(s): 
M. RISSELADA, H. VAN BREE
pp 168-174
Overzichtsartikel(en)

69 (3) 159-167

Titel: 
De overleving van sperma in de epididymis van de stier: een model voor spermaopslag in vitro?
Auteur(s): 
I. DE PAUW, A. VAN SOOM, S. VERBERCKMOES, A. DE KRUIF
pp 159-167
Overzichtsartikel(en)

69 (3) 154-158

Titel: 
Louis Willems (1822-1907). Founder of the protective inoculation against contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, an evaluative summary
Auteur(s): 
C. Huygelen
Samenvatting: 
Louis Willems' name is intimately linked with the history of prophylactic immunization in the nineteenth century. When he obtained his medical degreein 1849 contagious bovine pleuropneumonia or lung sickness was raging among the cattle population in most European countries. The disease is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, but in the middle of the nineteenth century, during the battle between the miasmatists and the contagonistsmany doubted its contagiousness. From the start, Willems defended the contagiousness of the disease and noticed that animals that had survived an infection did not contract it a second time. He demonstrated that inoculation of the serous fluid from the lungs or from the pleural cavity of affected animals into healthy cattle led to pronounced local reactions. Later on, when these inoculated animals came into contact with diseased cattle they turned out to be immune. In his first trials he inoculated at the base of the tail or around the nostrils but this led to very severe reactions and frequently to death. He then started inoculating at the tip of the tail with muchbetter results. Most animals showed a more or less pronounced reaction at the inoculation site caused by the etiological agent itself. The tip of the tail was obviously a good choice; this was confirmed later by many authors and the procedure is still being used today in areas where the disease is still prevalent. Inoculation at other sites of the body, such as the neck or the dewlap, led to very severe reactions often followed bydeath. Willems also demonstrated that local inoculation at the tip of the tail not only immunized the animals against infection via the respiratory tract resulting from contact with diseased animals, but also against a second inoculation in the tail, in the neck or elsewhere. Material harvested from the inoculation site in the tail (so-called secondary "virus") could also be used as inoculum. Animals that showed no reaction to the first inoculation received a second inoculation after a few weeks. Not only in Willems' lifetime (by himself and by his contemporaries) was immunization as a result of inoculation repeatedly proved through experiment, but also later, in more recent trials. Failures were usually attributed to inoculation of already infected animals or to the use of badly stored or purulent inocula. Inoculation during the incubation period did not provide protection. The publication of his results created enormous interest in the matter in his country and abroad. in several countries commissions were founded, trials were initiated and several foreign observers came to visit Willems. In general his results were confirmed abroad, at least if the trials were conducted correctly; this was not always the case. A critical evaluation of Willems' work leads us to the conclusion that hisinitial concepts and results in the field of immunization were correct andlargely confirmed by the facts and the observations of others. As for one aspect Willems erred completely, that is when he claimed that the small corpuscles he had observed in the lesions were the causal agents of the disease. In most countries lung sickness was eradicated by sanitary measures and byslaughtering all infected cattle, but some countries such as Australia have combined Willems' inoculation procedure with other measures for a long time. Even today his method is still being used, for instance in Africa, but infectious lung material has now been replaced by inocula consisting of attenuated mycoplasma cultures.
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pp 154-158
Willems herdenking

69 (3) 149-153

Titel: 
La pleuropneumonie contagieuse bovine: historique, agent etiologique, aspects clinique et lesionnel
Auteur(s): 
A. LINDEN, D. DESMECHT
pp 149-153
Willems herdenking

69 (3) 144-148

Titel: 
Meer dan een deel van de keten: veeteelt in de 19de-eeuwse Belgische landbouweconomie
Auteur(s): 
L. VAN MOLLE
pp 144-148
Willems herdenking