2003 - 72 (3)

Volume 72 (2003), nr. 3

72 (3) 202-209

Titel: 
Deep intra-uterine insemination of dairy cattle in field conditions
Auteur(s): 
S. Verberckmoes, A. Van Soom, I. De Pauw, J. Dewulf, A. de Kruif
Samenvatting: 
 A new insemination device (DIUI-pipette) was developed to deposit the semen near the oviduct. In this field study, 4064 cows were inseminated by 12 inseminators to assess the feasibility of the new DIUI-pipette. The cows were inseminated using three different methods: 1) in the uterine body with the classic insemination device, 2) in the uterine body with the DIUI-pipette, and 3) in the top of both uterine horns with the DIUI-pipette. Each insemination was performed with 10-15 x 106 frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The pregnancy rates (PRs) were significantly affected by the insemination technique (p = 0.02), the inseminator (p = 0.01), heifer or multi-parous cow (p < 0.01), and by the insemination number (p < 0.01). Time did not have a significant effect (p = 0.07). Pregnancy rates obtained after insemination with the classic insemination device were significantly better than those obtained after insemination in the uterine body with the DIUI-pipette (p < 0.01), but did not differ significantly from those obtained after deep insemination in both uterine horn tops (p = 0.27). Although the deep intra-uterine insemination method is more time consuming and requires more experience than the classic insemination method, it can be concluded that the DIUI-pipette is suitable for the insemination of dairy cattle under field conditions. Whether the new DIUI-pipette is also suitable for insemination with lower insemination doses is still to be examined.
Volledige tekst: 
pp 202-209
Origine(e)l(e) artikel(en)

72 (3) 191-201

Titel: 
EVALUATION OF CEREBRAL NEUROTRANSMITTER PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY WITH PET AND SPET IMAGING MODALITIES IN ANIMAL MODELS
Auteur(s): 
K.Peremans, K.Audenaert, F. De Vos, A. Otte, M.Vandecapelle, H.van Bree, F.Verschooten, G.Slegers, R.Dierckx
Samenvatting: 
Since positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET) have become widely available as imaging modalities, they have been used to perform studies on neuroreceptor physiology and pathophysiology in man and animals. Several neurological and psychiatric diseases related to neurotransmitters and receptor functioning have been investigated. In order to investigate the biological effects of new compounds, this imaging modality is becoming more and more popular in the pharmaceutical industry, since pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of new drugs can now be evaluated in vivo, omitting extensive in vitro examinations. The response to pharmaceuticals can thus be evaluated more objectively than with the more subjective assessment of patient condition based on clinical examination and the interpretation of neuropsychological tests. This review focuses on the technology of this imaging modality and on the nature of the radioligands used for neuroreceptor imaging. A brief overview will be given of the research on neuroreceptor physiology, neuropathology, drug evaluation and substance abuse, with the emphasis on animal models. Future prospects for implementation in veterinary medicine are discussed.
Volledige tekst: 
pp 191-201
Overzichtsartikel(en)

72 (3) 168-179

Titel: 
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) IN SMALL ANIMALS. PART 2. CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
Auteur(s): 
I. Gielen, H. van Bree
Samenvatting: 
CT is an imaging tool with many applications in various clinical disciplines that is becoming increasingly available to the veterinary profession. CT is particularly valuable for the detection and diagnosis of brain diseases associated with mass lesions. The fact that some intracranial lesions may not be visible on CT is probably due to diffuse distribution, attenuation levels similar to those of the surrounding normal tissue, and minimal or absent contrast enhancement. CT is more accurate than conventional radiography in evaluating the localization, extent and characterization of lesions of the nasal cavity, sinuses, orbital, jaws, temporomandibular joints and tympanic bullae. CT appears to be remarkably accurate in revealing the location and extent of nasal diseases and is superior to conventional radiography for detecting middle ear disease. CT is useful in the investigation of spinal lesions in the event of doubtful radiographic and/or myelographic findings, and can be of help in surgical planning. CT is one of the best imaging modalities for the detection and description of masses, malformations and fluid collections in the thoracic cavity and is considered the most sensitive method for the detection of pulmonary metastases. CT of the abdomen gives excellent anatomic images of the organs and vessels, although the availability of ultrasound may have decreased the demand for abdominal studies. Skeletal CT may be helpful in clinical cases in which standard radiography is negative or inconclusive even though there is a high suspicion of pathology. CT has been proven to be superior in the diagnosis of fragmented coronoid process and other affections of the elbow joint.
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pp 168-179
Thema

72 (3) 158-167

Titel: 
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT) IN SMALL ANIMALS. PART 1. TECHNICAL ASPECTS
Auteur(s): 
I. Gielen, A. Van Caelenberg, H. van Bree
Samenvatting: 
Computed tomography (CT) is a cross-sectional imaging technique using x-rays and computers that is becoming increasingly available to veterinarians. During CT scanning, an x-ray tube rotates 360° around the patient. Multiple radiographic projections of a particular slice of tissue are made, and information from all projections is combined to create a single tomographic (slice) image. CT images provide accurate anatomic evaluation of tissue planes and regions that often cannot be visualized with conventional radiography. Whereas conventional radiographs have five radiographic opacities (metal, bone, soft tissues, fat, and air), CT systems can record thousands of separate opacities, ranging from air to high-density metal. Many imaging artifacts can occur in the process of generating CT images. A good understanding of these artifacts is necessary to enable an accurate interpretation of the CT images. After the scan examination, images in other planes can be produced using computerized reformatting, which is of help in evaluating the extent of a lesion. To increase the amount of soft tissue information, negative (air) and positive contrast agents (radiopaque iodine) can be used. Positive contrast techniques are of greatest importance for demonstrating brain tumors. Biopsies can also be obtained under CT guidance, a procedure that can be accurately performed.
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pp 158-167
Thema