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Nederlands

74 (2) 140-145

Titel: 
The prevalence of antibodies against equine influenza virus, equine herpesviurs 1 and 4, equine arteritis and rhinovirus 1 and 2 in dutch standardbred horses
Auteur(s): 
C. VAN MAANEN, J. HELDENS, A.A. CULLINANE, R. VAN DEN HOVEN, M. WESTSTRATE
Samenvatting: 
A random cross-sectional seroprevalence study was conducted in 1996 by taking blood samples from 330 different standardbred horses on all racetracks in the Netherlands. This blood sampling took place on four consecutive days, with each horse being sampled only once. Samples were investigated for antibodies against several strains of equine influenza virus, equine herpesvirus types 1 and 4, equine arteritis virus, and equine rhinovirus types 1 and 2. A type specific gG ELISA was used to determine specific seroprevalences of equine herpesviruses 1 and 4. Influenza serology, using influenza A/equi/1 Prague/56 as an indicator virus for vaccination, demonstrated that 38 % of the horses were either unvaccinated or inadequately vaccinated. Many of these horses appeared to have experienced an influenza A/equi-2 field infection. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies against both EHV1 and EHV4 were found in a high percentage of the samples. However, for EHV1 this high seroprevalence was putatively caused by cross-reacting EHV4 antibodies since, in a type-specific gG ELISA, the EHV1 seroprevalence was only 28%, as compared with a 99% seroprevalence for EHV4. High seroprevalences were also found for equine rhinovirus type 1 and for the equine arteritis virus, thus indicating the endemic nature of these viruses. Many of these infections may be subclinical. The seroprevalence of equine rhinovirus type 2 was surprisingly low. The possible relationship between viral infections and upper respiratory tract disease and/or inflammatory airway disease is discussed.
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pp 140-145
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74 (4) 288-293

Titel: 
Counting cementum growth lines in dogs (canis familiaris) and red foxes (vulpes vulpes) as a means of age determination
Auteur(s): 
S. VAN LANCKER, K. VAN DEN BERGE, W. VAN DEN BROECK, P. SIMOENS
Samenvatting: 
Dental growth lines are often counted for age determination in feral animals that are living in the wild and are subject to seasonal variations. To assess whether or not this technique could also be used in domestic animals, the cementum growth lines of the canine and second premolar teeth were determined in 4 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) living in the natural habitat of Flanders, and in 7 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) that were kept in housing conditions. Dates of birth of all animals were registered. In the foxes a good correlation was found between the age of the animals and the number of cementum growth lines. In contrast, in domestic dogs the number of cementum lines was variable and could hardly be determined because the difference between primary and secondary lines was often uncertain. It was concluded that the count of cementum growth lines cannot be used for age assessment of dogs that are living in domestic conditions devoid of seasonal variations in food accessibility and weather conditions.
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pp 288-293
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74 (4) 283-287

Titel: 
The effect of l-carnitine on digestibility and carnitine metabolism in pigeons (columba livia domestica) fed corn or peas
Auteur(s): 
G.P.J. JANSSENS, A.M. ABD-ELLAH, H. DE RYCKE, M. HESTA, R.O.M. DE WILDE
Samenvatting: 
Sixteen adult female pigeons were randomly divided into two groups that were fed either corn or peas. Within each group, four pigeons received a supplement of 2.5 g L-carnitine/l drinking water. After an adaptation period of 7d, all excreta were gathered per bird in a 7d collection period. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract and apparent nitrogen retention were calculated from proximate analyses of feedstuffs and excreta. Blood samples were taken at the end of the trial and plasma samples were analyzed for carnitine and related compounds. Supplementation of L-carnitine did not affect digestibility but it did reduce apparent nitrogen retention in the corn-fed pigeons. Plasma analysis of γ-butyrobetain gave indications for a negative feedback mechanism of high L-carnitine dosage on de novo L-carnitine synthesis.
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pp 283-287
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75 (1) 31-34

Titel: 
Frequentiebepaling van het SCID-allel in de Belgische populatie van Arabische volbloeden
Auteur(s): 
L.J. PEELMAN, M. MATTHEEUWS, H. DENOO, M. VAN POUCKE, A. VAN ZEVEREN
Samenvatting: 
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) of horses is an inherited autosomal recessive defect carried by pure Arabian horses and their crossbreds. SCID foals have a deficiency in the number and function of mature lymphocytes and are very prone to infectious diseases. The defect is caused by a mutation in the PRKDC gene coding for the catalytic subunit of the DNA activated protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). Identification of the causative mutation made it possible to design a genotyping test for identifying carriers of the defective allele and to use this information in selective breeding against SCID. Here, the first frequency sampling of the SCID allele in the Belgian population of Arabian horses is presented. Four hundred and thirteen animals were genotyped, 25 or 6.05% of which were found to carry the SCID allele. Calculations based on these results showed the SCID allele frequency to be around 3.1% and the occurrence of SCID to be 0.096%.
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pp 31-34
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75 (2) 153-164

Titel: 
Spinale arachnoïdcysten bij de hond: een retrospectieve studie van 14 gevallen
Auteur(s): 
S.DE DECKER, I. VAN SOENS, M. TSHAMALA, I. GIELEN, J. SAUNDERS, I. POLIS, S. BHATTI, S. VAN MEERVENNE, L. VAN HAM
Samenvatting: 
Fourteen dogs with clinical signs compatible with a spinal arachnoid cyst were presented and examined at the Department of Medicine and Clinical Biology of Small Animals (Ghent University) between November 2000 and September 2004. The typical presentation was a slowly progressive non-painful ataxia. The diagnosis of a spinal arachnoid cyst was made by myelography, in some cases followed by computed tomography. Six dogs were treated surgically. Three dogs underwent durectomy and three dogs durotomy. All dogs were available for short-term follow-up and five out of six dogs were available for long-term follow-up (more than 1 year post surgery). Both the short-term and long-term results were promising.
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pp 153-164
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75 (3) 228-231

Titel: 
De seroprevalentie van caseuze lymfadenitis op een aantal geitenbedrijven in Oost-Vlaanderen
Auteur(s): 
J. LAUREYNS, A. WARENDORFF, J. DEWULF, A. DE KRUIF
Samenvatting: 
Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) in goats is manifested by abscesses filled with caseous pus, mainly in the superficial lymph nodes, but also in internal lymph nodes and several organs. Not only because of the direct economic losses, but also because of the zoonotic aspect, the occurrence of the disease can harm the profitability of the goat farm. Because until now no records have been available in Belgium, a prevalence study for CL was performed in the province of East Flanders.
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pp 228-231
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75 (4) 279-285

Titel: 
Vergelijking van antimicrobiële gevoeligheid van Brachyspira hyodysenteriae met het klinisch effect van behandeling
Auteur(s): 
P. VYT, J. HOMMEZ
Samenvatting: 
Antibiotic resistance of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, especially to pleuromutilins, is a matter of concern in several countries. In the present study, the antimicrobial susceptibilities of 30 Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates from 24 swine herds were tested and compared with the clinical effect of treatment. In vitro, no resistance to tiamulin was found, but two isolates(6%) were classified as intermediately susceptible. All isolates were susceptible to valnemulin at low concentrations (MIC50: ≤0.03 µg/ml). Higher minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for valnemulin were found in isolates with higher MICs for tiamulin. For lincomycin, 16 (53%) isolates were classified as resistant and 4 (13%) isolates as susceptible. For tylosin, a high percentage of resistance(96%) was recorded. The MICs for 50% of the strains for salinomycin and doxycycline were 0.5 and 4 µg/ml, respectively. Subsequently, the in vitro data obtained were compared with the farm history and clinical efficacies in 23 of the 24 swine herds of origin as judged by the attending veterinarians. The effect of treatment as evaluated in the field was generally in agreement with the in vitro data for these antibiotics. However, a clinical interpretation of certain breakpoints is imperative. A revision of the clinical breakpoint for tiamulin is proposed. Isolates with MIC ≥1µg/ml should be considered as not responding to therapy in vivo. Consequently, the therapeutic use of another compound is indicated. In the third part of this study, the in vitro MIC for lincomycin was compared in detail with the effect of treatment on four farms. Even though in vitro all isolates were classified as resistant, a good response to treatment was observed on two farms. On one of these farms, however, the disease reappeared after treatment was discontinued. It was concluded that in vitro susceptibility testing of B. hyodysenteriae for lincomycin only partially predicted clinical effect of treatment in the field.
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pp 279-285
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75 (4) 269-278

Titel: 
Prevalentie van testistumoren bij de hond in Vlaanderen
Auteur(s): 
P.H. HEUPERMAN, H. DE ROOSTER, K. CHIERS
Samenvatting: 
Of 97 dogs which were castrated at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University between 2003 and 2005 for different indications such as unwanted sexual behavior, prostatic problems, testicular tumors and cryptorchidism; both testicles were examined macroscopically and then submitted for histopathological examination of testicular parenchyma. Thirty eight different breeds were represented in the examined population. Bilaterally normal testicles were found in 46% of the patients. Testicular tumors were found in 29% of the cases and usually occurred in older dogs (mean age 10.9 years). Testicular neoplasms could be subdivided into seminomas (39%), Sertoli cell tumours (14 %), Leydig cell tumors (29%) and mixed tumors (18 %). Testicular neoplasm was incidentally found in 19% of the 27 dogs presented for routine castration. No other testicular pathologies were present in this group. Besides testicular tumors, testicular atrophy (20 %) was the most frequently observed testicular pathology in the population which was examined, whereas inflammation of the testis was very rarely diagnosed (5%).
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pp 269-278
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75 (6) 450-456

Titel: 
Detectie van PrP-complexe genotypen bij het schaap: een in vitro benadering
Auteur(s): 
C. RENARD, J. DE SLOOVERE, M. DE FILETTE, E. VANOPDENBOSCH, S. ROELS
Samenvatting: 
The PrP genotyping of sheep for selection from the population of individuals with scrapie resistant genotypes has become a very important component of the scrapie eradication strategy. However, a limited number of sheep did not seem to possess a standard “two allele” genotype, but rather three or more PrP (prion protein) alleles (complex genotypes). One hypothesis is that these animals are blood chimerisms, due to exchange of blood with their co-twin during gestation. In this study, blood from sheep with different genotypes was deliberately mixed (mimicking chimerism in vitro) and genotyped using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism – Denaturating Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (RFLP-DGGE). At certain mixture ratios, complex genotypes were detected. This experiment shows that if the complex genotypes diagnosed in vivo are due to blood chimerism, they can to a certain extent be detected by these techniques.
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pp 450-456
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76 (2) 130-137

Titel: 
Consumptie van rundertong en kalfszwezeriken: een risico voor de volksgezondheid?
Auteur(s): 
C. CASTELEYN, S. BREUGELMANS, S. MUYLLE, W. VAN DEN BROECK, P. SIMOENS
Samenvatting: 
Swine dysentery is causing severe economic losses in affected herds. In the present study an elimination protocol without depopulation was developed and evaluated on three farrow-to-finish farms using fecal examination. The elimination protocol consisted of stringent rodent control, hygienic measures and an elimination treatment of the sows using tiamulin 10 mg/kg BW or valnemulin 4 mg/kg BW for 3 weeks, followed by a 3 week treatment at half the dose. On day 10 of antimicrobial supplementation, treatment was accompanied by washing of the sows and cleaning of the environment. Once treated and washed according to this protocol, the sows were considered clean. Thus the piglets born from these sows in a clean environment were considered clean and were kept separated from the rest of the piglets and fatteners. For the piglets and fatteners born before the elimination treatment, no elimination treatment was done. Only pigs showing clinical symptoms were treated, in combination with hygienic measures to prevent spreading. Fecal samples from sows and clean pigs were monitored monthly until one year after the start of the treatment program. In two herds, elimination of the disease was successful: no clinical signs were seen and fecal samples remained negative until the end of the testing period. In one herd, clinical symptoms reappeared in the fatteners. The findings of this study confirm the potential usefulness of the elimination protocol described in single-site, farrow-to finish herds. In addition, the results of the prolonged follow-up strongly indicate that the causal bacterium itself, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, can be eliminated at the farm level when this elimination protocol is applied.
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pp 130-137
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