2017 - 86 (4)

Volume 86 (2017), nr. 4

2017 - 86 (4)

Full text: 
pp 266-269
Question and answer

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Biomechanical aspects of farriery in horses
Author(s): 
M. OOSTERLINCK, M. DUMOULIN, E. VAN DE WATER, F. PILLE
Abstract: 
In this paper, the current biomechanical concepts that are important for the evidence-basedapplication of trimming and shoeing techniques in the treatment of lameness in horses are reviewed.Hoof balance, shock absorption, grip versus sliding of the hoof, the pressure distribution within thehoof and hoof breakover are discussed. Moreover, possible effects on the hoof mechanism should betaken into account. Ideally, these issues should be considered in the prevention of injury rather than inthe treatment of established pathology.
Full text: 
pp 256-265
Continuing professional development

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Probable diagnosis of spontaneous hypothyroidism in an adult cat
Author(s): 
H. DE BOSSCHERE, E. KINDERMANS, E. BUELENS, N. GANTOIS
Abstract: 
In this case report, a probable diagnosis of a rare endocrine condition in a cat is described. Aseven-year-old, spayed domestic shorthair presented with lethargy, partial anorexia and postprandialhypersalivation. A decreased activity level and a poor quality haircoat with excessive hair loss haddeveloped over the past six months. A probable diagnosis of acquired hypothyroidism was made afterexclusion of non-thyroidal diseases, decreased serum TT4 and serum fT4 levels and a positive responseto a therapeutic trial with levothyroxine. Nearly two years after the initial diagnosis, the cat was doingwell and was completely free of symptoms.
Full text: 
pp 250-255
Case report(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Pheochromocytoma in a horse with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
Author(s): 
A. DUFOURNI, D. DE CLERCQ, L. VERA, B. BROUX, L. LEFERE, L. BOSSELER, H. VERSNAEYEN, G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
A twenty-four-year-old mare, which had been examined seven years earlier for mitral valveregurgitation and mild left sided cardiomegaly, was presented with tachycardia, profuse sweatingand muscle fasciculations. Blood examination revealed an increased packed cell volume, metabolicacidosis, hypocalcemia, hyperglycemia and increased cardiac troponin I concentration.ECG revealed ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia followedby polymorphic ventricular tachycardia with R-on-T phenomenon. The horse was treated immediatelywith hypertonic solution followed by isotonic solution and calcium, but the general conditiondeteriorated within forty-five minutes after arrival. The horse was euthanized due to poorprognosis. On necropsy, a pheochromocytoma of the left adrenal gland was found. Although thishorse had undergone a cardiovascular examination seven and one year prior to the onset of theclinical signs, no indications for a neoplastic process or symptoms of a pheochromocytoma werefound at that time. Early diagnosis of pheochromocytoma is based on catecholamine mediatedcardiovascular effects, blood examination, blood pressure measurement, rectal palpation andrectal ultrasound of the adrenal gland. Based on a retrospective analysis of echocardiographicimages and measurements, no predisposing factors were found. In this article, the importance ofincluding pheochromocytoma as a differential diagnosis is highlighted, especially in older horseswith acute polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, sweating, muscle tremors and signs of acuteabdominal pain.
Full text: 
pp 241-249

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Titanium mesh reconstruction of a dog’s cranium after multilobular osteochondrosarcoma resection
Author(s): 
A. DIERCKX DE CASTERLÉ, B. VAN GOETHEM, A. KITSHOFF, S.F.M. BHATTI, I. GIELEN, T. BOSMANS, H. DE COCK, H. DE ROOSTER
Abstract: 
An eleven-year-old cavalier King Charles spaniel was presented with a large mass arisingfrom the sagittal crest of the skull. Computed tomography also revealed an intracranial component.A histological diagnosis of multilobular osteochondrosarcoma grade 1 was made from surgicalbiopsies. Since this tumor type has a moderate aggressive biological behavior characterizedby a slow growth, compression of adjacent structures, and only a 30% metastatic rate, surgicalresection was performed. A wide partial craniectomy was performed, the skull defect was reconstructedwith a designated custom designed titanium mesh and the skin defect closed with a localsubdermal plexus flap technique. Histologic evaluation indicated clean surgical margins, whichmay lead to a long-term survival in this low-grade tumor. Approximately seventeen months aftersurgical resection, the dog showed no signs of local tumor recurrence or metastasis.
Full text: 
pp 232-240
Case report(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Effects of training on equine muscle physiology and muscle adaptations in response to different training approaches
Author(s): 
R. VERMEULEN, C. DE MEEÛS, L. PLANCKE, B. BOSHUIZEN, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
It is well known that exercise induces chemical, metabolic and structural changes in muscles.However, the effect of the type of exercise on these changes has not been thoroughly studied inhorses yet, because of a lack of standardized study methods. In this review, the effect of threedifferent types of exercise on muscle adaptation and metabolic responses is investigated. Therequirements for power exercise are not the same as for low intensity exercise. Each type oftraining induces its own shift in muscle fiber typing, as well as in enzyme concentrations and (an)aerobic capacity. These physiological adaptations in response to training facilitate more efficientexercise and therefore increase performance. Hence, it is important to know the adaptations thatmuscles undergo in response to each type of exercise to optimize training management of sporthorses in function of the needs of the discipline in which they compete.
Full text: 
pp 224-231
Review(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Potential welfare issues of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) at the retailer and in the hobbyist aquarium
Author(s): 
C.C.F. PLEEGING, C.P.H. MOONS
Abstract: 
Betta splendens is an extremely popular ornamental fish among hobby aquarists. It has aninteresting behavioral repertoire, particularly where male aggression and territoriality are concerned.The lack of scientific studies investigating optimal housing conditions in combinationwith the wide variety of commercially available husbandry products, raises questions about thewelfare status of these fish in captivity. In this article, an overview of the available literature onthe biology of the betta and general considerations of ornamental fish keeping is given, and environment-and animal-related factors with potential impact on the welfare of Betta splendensare examined. Although more research using biological and physiological indicators is needed,the following factors constituting welfare problems have been identified: an aquarium of limiteddimensions, prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. infection, aggression to and from conspecifics orother species in the same aquarium and the limited ability to escape, potential for stress due toprolonged visual contact between males in shops and during shows, and the lack of environmentalenrichment in the form of sheltering vegetation.
Full text: 
pp 213-223
Review(s)

2017 - 86(4)

Title: 
Microplastics: minuscule particles with big consequences?
Author(s): 
S. KNOLL, A. DECOSTERE, A.M. DECLERCQ
Abstract: 
Since the mass production of plastics, contamination of the marine environment with thesepersistent synthetic materials has become an ever-increasing problem. Lately, it has become clear thatmicroplastics play a big part in this. These small plastic particles (< 5mm) are ubiquitous in seawaterand sediments. There are various entryways, such as fragmentation of macroplastics and drainage ofprimary microplastic via wastewater. Recent studies have shown that microplastics may be ingested bynumerous marine organisms. This could result in diverse health effects, including mechanical injuryand cellular toxicity. Adverse effects of microplastics are possibly enhanced by the contamination ofthese plastic particles with toxic chemicals. Furthermore, microplastics and microplastic contaminantscould accumulate in the food chain, eventually affecting humans. Despite the growing number ofpublications on microplastics, there are still many unanswered questions regarding this topic. In thisarticle, the contemporary knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment is provided.
Full text: 
pp 203-212
Review(s)