2016 - 85 (3)

Volume 85 (2016), nr. 3

85 (3) pg 171

Full text: 
pp 171-171
Question and answer

85 (3) pg 167

Title: 
Pet dog cancer models in search of novel therapeutic alternatives
Author(s): 
E. ABMA, L. CICCHELERO, H. DE ROOSTER, S. DAMINET, N.N. SANDERS
Abstract: 
In cancer research, rodent cancer models are a standard research tool. However, translation ofcancer research data from rodent to man is far from optimal. Hence, it is recommended that the efficacyof novel cancer drugs is confirmed in higher animal species before human trials are initiated. Pet dogswith spontaneous cancer are the perfect candidates in every respect. Dogs share a similar histologic,biologic and genetic cancer background significantly closer than the relationship between rodent andman. Furthermore, the development and interaction between tumor, host and tumor microenvironmentis comparable to those in humans. There are corresponding diagnostic and treatment options availablefor dogs and humans, while the progression of cancer in dogs is fast enough to obtain results within areasonable period of time. Lastly, pet dogs have a broader access to clinical trials than humans, enablingextensive research opportunities. Moreover, the dog also benefits from participation in clinical studies,since these studies offer an additional treatment option, and hence an additional chance of being cured.
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pp 167-170
Continuing professional development

85 (3) pg 163

Title: 
Phenylephrine-induced epistaxis in a 6-year-old Quarter horse with nephrosplenic entrapment
Author(s): 
P. KELLER, A. DUFOURNI, M. VAN DE VELDE, C. BAUWENS, G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
Een dorsale verplaatsing van het colon over de milt-nierband is een vaak voorkomende oorzaak vankoliek bij het paard. Behandeling kan gebeuren door chirurgie, het rollen van het paard onder algemeneanesthesie of door toediening van fenylefrine. Een behandeling met fenylefrine, een α1-adrenerge stof,geeft vaak aanleiding tot beven en zweten. Uit de literatuur blijkt dat vooral paarden ouder dan 15 jaarhet risico lopen op een fatale bloeding in thorax of abdomen. Uitgaande van de veronderstelling dathet gebruik enkel risicovol is bij paarden ouder dan 15 jaar, wordt het product voornamelijk bij jongerepaarden ingezet. In deze casuïstiek wordt echter een ernstige epistaxis bij een zes jaar oude Quarterhorsebeschreven na intraveneuze toediening van 22,5 μg/kg LG fenylefrine.
Full text: 
pp 163-166
Case report(s)

85 (3) pg 157

Title: 
Complications following arachnoid diverticulum marsupialization in a Rottweiler
Author(s): 
L. GEERINCKX, E. ROYAUX, I. GIELEN, S. BHATTI, M. TSHAMALA, L. VAN HAM
Abstract: 
A young male Rottweiler had neurological signs since birth. The dog had hypermetria on his frontlimbs, ataxia on his hind limbs and proprioception was reduced on the hind limbs as well. Computertomographic examination post myelography and MRI scans showed a long dorsal subarachnoidal diverticulumfrom cranial C2 up to cranial C5, causing compression of the spinal cord, thus explainingthe neurological signs. A cervical dorsal laminectomy was performed, followed by durotomy and marsupialization.Postoperative complications led to revision surgery and on top of that, the patient neededfive more days of mechanical ventilation. From then on, the dog was able to breathe on his own andhis neurological condition improved step by step. He made a full recovery and eleven months aftersurgery, he was still doing well.
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pp 157-162
Case report(s)

85 (3) pg 141

Title: 
Peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia with one-time pericardial effusion in a Beagle
Author(s): 
S. VAN DER MEEREN, V. BAVEGEMS, A. WILLEMS, ELKE VAN DER VEKENS, H. DE ROOSTER
Abstract: 
A male, four-year-old, castrated Beagle was presented with ascites, tachypnee, partial anorexiaand lethargy. Through radiography, echocardiography and computed tomography, the diagnosis ofpericardial effusion and a peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was made, where probably onlyomentum was herniated into the pericardium. Abdominocentesis and pericardiocentesis were performed.The peritoneopericardial diaphragmatic hernia was treated conservatively because, after one pericardiocentesis,no new pericardial effusion developed and the patient did well. At a control visit sixmonths later, the patient was active, playful and without recurrence of pericardial effusion.
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pp 150-156
Case report(s)

85 (3) pg 141

Title: 
The “Thunder Measure Vet Device”: an innovative tool to objectively score the body condition of dairy cows in the field
Author(s): 
T. DEWAELE, M. VAN EETVELDE, G. VERTENTEN, G. OPSOMER
Abstract: 
The scoring of the body condition at specific time points during the lactation cycle has proven tobe essential in the nutritional management of modern dairy herds. The ‘Thunder Measure (TM) VetDevice’ has recently been developed by Ingenera SA, Switzerland to accurately and objectively measurethe body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows in the field. Based on a smartphone app linked to alaser device, the system makes an analysis of three dorsal view photographs taken, for example, whencows are lined up in the feed alley. In the present study, the correlation and repeatability of the systemwere examined in comparison with the conventional visual measurement of BCS and ultrasonographicmeasurement of the backfat thickness (BFT). The conventional measurement of the BCS was done bya veterinary surgeon experienced in body condition scoring and by less experienced veterinary undergraduatestudents. The results obtained via the TM Vet Device were only moderately correlated withthe BFT measurements (r=0.38, P<0.001), but were highly correlated (r=0.82, P<0.001) and showedgood agreement with the BCS results obtained by the experienced veterinary surgeon. The BCS resultsobtained by the undergraduate students were highly variable, leading to a highly variable correlationwith the results gathered using the TM Vet Device (r=0.23 (P<0.05) to r=0.74 (P<0.001)). The repeatabilityof the results obtained by the device was very high (91%). Only the repeatability of the resultsobtained by the experienced veterinarian (93%) and the BFT measurement (96%) were higher. In leananimals, some overscoring by the device was noted in comparison with the scores given by the experiencedveterinary surgeon, although this overscoring diminished as the body condition score assignedby the veterinary surgeon increased.The ease to use and the accuracy of the results obtained allow the TM Vet Device to be considereda useful tool in the nutritional management of a modern dairy herd.
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pp 141-149
Original article(s)

85 (3) pg 133

Title: 
Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma
Author(s): 
C. VAN HOEY, W. VAN DEN BROECK, S. PRIMS, S. VAN CRUCHTEN, C. VAN GINNEKEN, C. CASTELEYN
Abstract: 
In this literature review, an overview of the current knowledge of MALT lymphoma in man isprovided. Where appropriate, attention is paid to the presence of the lesion in veterinary medicine.Lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) may originate from lymphoid tissuethat is induced in the mucosae. The knowledge of these tumors in veterinary medicine is limited tothe relation between gastric MALT lymphoma and infection with Helicobacter species in the cat. Thediagnosis is based on the symptomatology, such as vomiting and anorexia, and histology of gastricbiopsies. In human medicine, immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization have diagnosticvalue. Cats can be treated by eliminating the bacterial infection and by surgery. In humans, chemotherapy,radiation therapy and antibody therapy are additional options. The prognosis is favorable inmost human cases, but is negatively influenced in the cat by complicating factors, such as infectionwith the feline leukemia virus.
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pp 133-140
Review(s)

85 (3) pp 124

Title: 
Pharmacokinetics of drugs in avian species and the applications and limitations of dose extrapolation
Author(s): 
R. HOUBEN, G. ANTONISSEN, S. CROUBELS, P. DE BACKER, M. DEVREESE
Abstract: 
The pharmacokinetic processes of drugs, i.e. absorption, distribution, metabolization and elimination,differ between birds and mammals. For instance, the clearance and volume of the distribution ofaminoglycosides are lower in birds than in mammals. These pharmacokinetic differences are caused bydifferences in anatomy, biochemistry and physiology between birds and mammals. The species differencesin pharmacokinetics and differences in the observed and predicted pharmacokinetic parametersof some drugs in birds after extrapolation from mammals (e.g. clearance of enrofloxacin, salicylic acid,meloxicam and flunixin), show that pharmacokinetic data on mammals can hardly be extrapolated tobirds as such. Furthermore, differences in pharmacokinetic behavior between bird species exist as well.Therefore, the selection of an appropriate posology for birds has to be based on pharmacokinetic dataof that specific bird species. In absence of these data, dose selection might be done using allometricscaling. The pharmacokinetic data are scaled in correlation to the body weight of a different bird species.In case these data are also not available, dose selection using allometric scaling with pharmacokineticdata from mammals should preferably only be done for drugs with a low toxicity.
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pp 124-132
Review(s)

85 (3) pp 115

Title: 
Bacterial zoonotic agents of fish
Author(s): 
R. JACOBS, A. DECOSTERE, A.M. DECLERCQ
Abstract: 
Currently, the importance of zoonoses is increasing as a result of, for example, the internationalizationof trade. Zoonoses may be caused by ingestion (food zoonosis) or after skin contact with infectedmaterial (contact zoonosis). The increase of fish zoonoses is specifically due to the expansion of aquaculture.Fishermen, fish handlers, but also fish hobbyists are at the highest risk of being exposed to fishas a possible zoonotic source of infection. Often, these people are inadequately aware of this situation.Preventive measures are hence crucial.Mycobacterium marinum, Vibrio vulnificus, Edwardsiella tarda and Streptococcus iniae are themost important topically acquired bacterial fish zoonotic germs. Aeromonas hydrophila and Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae are considered less common. Infection of humans occurs through contact of skinlesions with the bacterium, and for some of the bacteria mentioned via oral route. In most cases, thediagnosis of these infections can be assumed based on the anamnesis, in which previous contact withfish has been demonstrated. The diagnosis of the specific germ can be confirmed via bacterial isolationand subsequent identification, for example via polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of infection ismostly done through antibiotics. In some cases, additional surgical treatment is needed.
Full text: 
pp 115-123
Review(s)