2011 - 80 (1)

Volume 80 (2011), nr. 1

80 (1) pp 75-78

Abstract: 
Paper in Dutch
Full text: 
pp 75-78
Question and answer

80 (1) pp 69-74

Title: 
Diaphragmatic herniation as a rare cause of anterior functional stenosis in cattle
Author(s): 
P. DE SCHUTTER, L. MAES, B. PARDON, P. DEPREZ
Abstract: 
Diaphragmatic hernia is a rare condition in cattle and although clinical symptoms can be variable, signs ofanterior stenosis predominate. On the basis of four cases presented at the Clinic for Large Animal Internal Medicine,Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University (Belgium), the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and the treatment ofdiaphragmatic hernia are discussed in this article. The literature suggests that pre-operative diagnosis and a successfultreatment are possible. Hence a comparison is made between the findings of these four cases and the findings in theliterature.
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pp 69-74
Continuing professional development

80 (1) pp 61-68

Title: 
Metabolic bone disease and hyperparathyroidism in an adult dog fed an unbalanced homemade diet
Author(s): 
A. VERBRUGGHE, D. PAEPE, L. VERHAERT, J. SAUNDERS, J. FRITZ, G.P.J. JANSSENS, M. HESTA
Abstract: 
An 8-year-old intact male Briard was presented with a non-painful bilateral diffuse swelling of mandibleand maxilla. The teeth were mobile. The jaws felt like rubber. Radiographic examination revealed generalizedosteopenia. Ultrasound showed prominent parathyroid glands. The plasma parathyroid hormone concentrationwas extremely high, the serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH Vit D) was low, and the serum ionized calciumremained within the reference range. As the dog had been fed an unbalanced homemade diet for manyyears, rubber jaw, osteomalacia and secondary hyperparathyroidism due to dietary calcium and vitamin Ddeficiency were diagnosed. Dietary correction resulted in clinical improvement and normalization of the plasmaparathyroid hormone concentration within 4 months. However, although the 25-OH Vit D was clearly raised,it still did not reach reference values, which was due to lack of owner compliance, as the owner had changedthe patient’s diet over time.
Full text: 
pp 61-68
Case report(s)

80 (1) pp 55-60

Title: 
An unusual case of leptospirosis: acute respiratory distress and icterus in a two-month-old foal
Author(s): 
B. Broux, I. Durie, S. Torfs, B. Wegge, R. Ducatelle, P. Deprez
Abstract: 
A two-month-old warmblood foal was presented with complaints of acute respiratory distress and lethargy. Bothclinical examination and blood tests revealed icterus, dyspnea and kidney failure. The foal was euthanized andnecropsy and histological examination showed extensive kidney damage, liver damage and alveolar hemorrhage. Thediagnosis of leptospirosis was confirmed by immunofluorescense. Unlike in human cases of leptospirosis, respiratorysymptoms caused by alveolar hemorrhage in horses are not often associated with leptospirosis. This case shows thatthe frequency of respiratory complications caused by alveolar hemorrhage after leptospira infection might beunderestimated. It is important to consider leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis of dyspnea in the foal.
Full text: 
pp 55-60
Case report(s)

80 (1) pp 49-54

Title: 
Severe aortic regurgitation due to endocarditis in a horse
Author(s): 
T. AFONSO, T. VERHEYEN, V. SAEY, S. U. SYS, G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
A 4-year-old Belgian Warmblood mare was presented because of fever, exercise intolerance, aloud diastolic cardiac murmur and a remarkable bounding pulsation that was palpable all over thebody. This bounding pulsation appeared simultaneous with the cardiac contractions. Cardiacultrasound revealed a vegetation on the aortic valve with severe aortic regurgitation and a secondvegetation at the sinus of Valsalva. A reverse flow in the common carotid artery was present duringdiastole. Left heart catheterization showed left ventricular and aortic pressure curves characteristicof a rather acute development of the lesion. The strong bounding pulsation was caused by severeaortic regurgitation that resulted in a very wide pulse pressure with the occurrence of “Watson’swater hammer pulse”. Due to the grave prognosis, treatment was not attempted. Necropsy confirmedaortic valve endocarditis.
Full text: 
pp 49-54
Case report(s)

80 (1) pp 38-48

Title: 
Glomerulopathy as a complication of monocytic ehrlichiosis in a dog
Author(s): 
L. DESMET, D. PAEPE, F. DE KEYSER, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
This report describes a clinical case of chronic monocytic ehrlichiosis in a dog that originated from Spain. Thepatient was presented with chronic unilateral epistaxis. Hematologic and biochemical abnormalities namely anemia,thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, lymphocytosis, hyperproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypergammaglobulinemiatogether with the anamnesis, suggested an infection with Ehrlichia canis. Although gammopathy caused byehrlichiosis is usually polyclonal, serum protein electrophoresis revealed a monoclonal gammopathy. E.canis titerswere strongly positive. The dog was treated with doxycycline for a period of eight weeks, which led to resolution ofthe clinical signs and laboratory abnormalities, except for persistent hyperproteinemia. Proteinuria was recognizedone year later. This was probably due to glomerular damage as a result of chronic ehrlichiosis. Combination therapywith doxycycline, a low protein diet, an ACE-inhibitor and acetylsalicylic acid lead to a significant reduction in themagnitude of proteinuria.
Full text: 
pp 38-48
Case report(s)

80 (1) pp 31-37

Title: 
Measuring body energy reserves stored as fat in high yielding dairy cows
Author(s): 
M. VAN EETVELDE, S. DE SMET, G. OPSOMER
Abstract: 
The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fatdeposits in dairy cows and, furthermore, to determine how these fat deposits can be accurately measured in the livingcow using methods applicable in the field. In 74 dairy cows, the amount of subcutaneous fat was measured justbefore slaughter, using three different techniques: determination of the body condition score (BCS), measurementof the ultrasonographic back fat thickness (BFT), and measurement of the bio-electrical impedance (bioelectricalimpedance analysis, BIA). After slaughter, the amount of fat stored in the omentum was determined using a newomental fat score (OFS) based on a 5-point scale. The results revealed that there is significant correlation betweenthe different methods tested to measure the amount of subcutaneously stored fat (BCS-BFT: r = 0.71; p < 0.001; BCSBIA:r = 0.39; p < 0.01; BFT-BIA: r = 0.57; p < 0.001). Remarkably, however, no correlation was found between theOFS and the amount of fat stored in the subcutis as measured by the BCS and the BFT (r = 0.20; p = 0.08 and r =0.10; p = 0.39, respectively). Also, the BIA results were not correlated with the OFS (r = 0,10; p = 0,40), a fact whichcould be due to the electrode placement along the dorsal midline of the cow instead of on the limbs. The conclusionof this study is that both farmers and veterinarians should be aware that, although the BCS and the BFT may bescored as optimal in relation to their stage in lactation, some cows may hide a significant amount of fat in theiromentum, which may put them at a higher risk of suffering from metabolic diseases. More research is required inorder to develop new techniques to measure accurately and in a practically applicable way the total amount of fatstored in the body of a living cow.
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pp 31-37
Original article(s)

80 (1) pp 25-30

Title: 
Polyartritis bij zuigende biggen voorkomen, etiologie, behandeling en preventie (Dutch)
Author(s): 
L. PLUYM, F. BOYEN, P. DEPREZ, A. DE KRUIF, D. MAES
Abstract: 
Article in Dutch
Full text: 
pp 25-30
Review(s)

80 (1) pp 3-14

Title: 
Respiration in birds: a functional and anatomical approach
Author(s): 
C. CASTELEYN, J. SCHEERS, P. SIMOENS, W. VAN DEN BROECK
Abstract: 
The mechanism of avian respiration is still controversial. It is fundamentally different from respiration inmammals. Although during in- and expiration a continuous caudocranial airflow is present within the tertiary bronchiand the air capillaries of the avian lung, the air flow within the entire respiratory system is still equivocal. Severalpatterns explaining the air flow during in- and expiration have been proposed during the past century. Moreover,various anatomical structures and aerodynamic mechanisms have recently been described in an attempt to explainthe proposed mechanisms of respiration. This manuscript gives an overview of the anatomy of the avian respiratorysystem and the hypotheses concerning the physiology of avian respiration.
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pp 3-14
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