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English

76 (1) 31-34

Title: 
Prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in Belgian snake collections
Author(s): 
T. HELLEBUYCK, D. VANCRAEYNEST, T. GEURDEN, E. CLAEREBOUT, F. PASMANS
Abstract: 
This report describes a prevalence study of cryptosporidiosis in 105 snakes from 7 Belgian snake collections. Several non-European studies have shown high prevalences in snake collections of zoos and in snake populations in the wild. In spite of correct sampling and proper detection procedures, not a single positive sample was found in the present study. Therefore one can conclude that the importance of this parasite in the collections examined is negligible.
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pp 31-34
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76 (1) 26-30

Title: 
Cryptosporidiosis in snakes
Author(s): 
T. HELLEBUYCK, D. VANCRAEYNEST, T. GEURDEN, E. CLAEREBOUT, F. PASMANS
Abstract: 
Characteristically, cryptosporidiosis in snakes is caused by Cryptosporidium serpentis. This parasite affects the stomach and may cause considerable morbidity and mortality. This report describes an overview of the current literature. After the importance and prevalence of this parasite are demonstrated, the pathogenesis and the related pathology and clinical signs are described. Subsequently, the different diagnostic methods and therapeutic approaches are mentioned, as well as their use in the prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis in snake collections.
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pp 26-30
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76 (1) 14-25

Title: 
Spierziekten bij hond en kat – deel 5: secundaire myopathieën (Dutch)
Author(s): 
A.VANHAESEBROUCK, T. BILZER, L. VAN HAM
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pp 14-25
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76 (4) 262-271

Title: 
Complications due to tooth extraction in the horse, pet animals and man
Author(s): 
L. VLAMINCK, L. VERHAERT, M. STEENHAUT, F. GASTHUYS
Abstract: 
Numerous complications can be encountered during or after performing dental extractions in man,or in animals regularly seen in veterinary practice, including dogs and cats, lagomorphs, rodents and thehorse. Obvious determinant factors for intraoperative complications related to tooth extraction are surgicalexpertise and the availability of specialized instruments. The most commonly seen problems during anextraction procedure include tooth fracture and damage of surrounding structures such as neighboringteeth, soft tissues and the surrounding bone. Postoperative complications are mainly related to the persistenceor development of infection in and around the vacant alveolus. Rarely encountered post-extractionproblems include jaw fracture, local nerve dysfunction and spread of infection to more distant locationsincluding sinuses and the central nervous system. In the hypsodont dentition of lagomorphs, rodents andhorses, tooth loss may induce the development of wear abnormalities due to the continuous eruption oftheir teeth.
pp 262-271
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76 (4) 249-261

Title: 
Tooth extraction techniques in horses, pet animals and man
Author(s): 
L. VLAMINCK, L. VERHAERT, M. STEENHAUT, F. GASTHUYS
Abstract: 
Several techniques have been developed to extract teeth in different animal species regularly seen inveterinary practice. Many of these techniques have a lot of similarities with human extraction techniques,whereas others are species specific. Overall, they can be divided into simple or closed extractions, andsurgical extraction techniques. Simple extractions involve the removal of teeth or root fragments using anintra-oral approach and without exposing or removing alveolar bone. More complex intra- or extra-oralapproaches and surgical techniques are used during surgical extractions. This paper reviews the currentconcepts of the different methods for removing teeth in horses, dogs, cats, lagomorphs and rodents, andcompares them with human exodontic procedures.
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pp 249-261
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76 (4) 241-248

Title: 
Portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats: laboratory diagnosis of congenital portosystemic shunts
Author(s): 
D. PAEPE, H. HAERS, K. VERMOTE, J. SAUNDERS, M. RISSELADA, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
The most frequent laboratory abnormalities in patients with congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS)are microcytosis, hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, increased liver enzyme activities,decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urate crystalluria. The microcytosis is probably due to impairediron transport. Hypoglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia and decreased BUN are partly dueto decreased hepatic synthesis. Prolonged coagulation times are also common. A presumptive diagnosisof CPSS is based on the combination of the history, clinical signs, clinicopathological abnormalities andabnormal liver function tests such as serum bile acid and venous ammonia concentrations. Nowadays,determination of pre- and postprandial serum bile acids is the most commonly performed liver functiontest because of the high sensitivity and greater convenience compared to plasma ammonia concentration.Confirmation of the diagnosis is only possible by visualizing the shunting vessel by medical imaging techniquesor during surgery.
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pp 241-248
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76 (4) 234-241

Title: 
Portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats: definition, epidemiology and clinical signs of congenital portosystemic shunts
Author(s): 
D. PAEPE, H. HAERS, K. VERMOTE, J. SAUNDERS, M. RISSELADA, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) are hepatic vascular anomalies which can affect any breed ofdog or cat. Extrahepatic CPSS are most commonly observed in cats and small dogs, whereas intrahepaticCPSS are more likely to affect large breed dogs. A hereditary basis has been observed in some dog breeds.Affected animals are usually presented at young age with a variety of neurological, gastrointestinal, urinaryor other signs. Signs of hepatic encephalopathy often predominate. The pathogenesis of this condition isnot yet completely understood and is probably multifactorial. The underlying cause is probably the influenceon the brain of one or more toxins which normally speaking should be detoxified by the liver. Ptyalismis a very common sign in cats with CPSS.
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pp 234-241
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76 (5) 322-330

Title: 
Portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats: imaging portosystemic shunts in small animals – ultrasonography, nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging
Author(s): 
H. HAERS, D. PAEPE, K. VERMOTE, J.H. SAUNDERS, S. DAMINET, M. RISSELADA
Abstract: 
Because of the non-specificity of the clinical signs and laboratory findings, imaging techniques suchas portography, ultrasonography (US), nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), or magneticresonance imaging (MRI) are required to provide a definitive diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs).Nuclear scintigraphy is the gold standard for detecting PSSs, but it is not useful in distinguishing the differenttypes of shunts. Due to its high sensitivity, portography has for a long time been considered the goldstandard for differentiation of PSSs, despite its invasive nature. However, the recent development of astandard protocol for US and the routine use of Doppler modalities have resulted in the same sensitivityas portography. Therefore, with the additional benefit of being fast and noninvasive, US is now more commonlyperformed. It may be considered a “new” gold standard, depending upon the experience of theradiologist. Computed tomography and MRI provide detailed anatomic information. In this fourth articleabout portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats a comprehensive overview of the literature covering US andnuclear scintigraphy will be given. Finally CT and MRI techniques will be explained briefly.
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pp 322-330
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76 (5) 315-321

Title: 
Portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats: imaging portosystemic shunts in small animals – hepatic vascular anatomy, shunt morphology, radiography
Author(s): 
H. HAERS, D. PAEPE, K. VERMOTE, J.H. SAUNDERS, S. DAMINET, M. RISSELADA
Abstract: 
Portosystemic shunts (PSSs) are anomalous vascular communications between the portal vein or itsbranches and the systemic venous system. Signalment, history, clinical signs, and laboratory findings canalready provide a presumptive diagnosis of a PSS. However, imaging techniques such as portography,ultrasonography (US), nuclear scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) are required to provide a definitive diagnosis. Nuclear scintigraphy is the gold standard for detectingPSSs, but it is not useful in distinguishing the different types of shunts. Due to its high sensitivity,portography was for a long time considered the gold standard for the differentiation of PSSs, even thoughit is an invasive technique. However, the recent development of a standard protocol for ultrasound (US)and the routine use of Doppler modalities resulted in the same sensitivity as portography. Therefore, withthe additional benefit of being fast and noninvasive, US is now more commonly performed. It may be suggestedas a “new” gold standard, depending upon the experience of the radiologist. Computed tomographyand MRI provide detailed anatomic information. In this third part about portosystemic shunts in dogs andcats the different types of shunts and their diagnosis using portography will be explained.
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pp 315-321
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76 (6) 401-409

Title: 
Surgical management of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats
Author(s): 
K.VERMOTE, M.RISSELADA, H. HAERS, J. SAUNDERS, D. PAEPE, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
A portosystemic shunt is an erroneous venous communication between the portal vein and the systemiccirculation. Surgery is the treatment of choice. Progressive attenuation of the shunt is indicated in mostcases to prevent portal hypertension. Gauged attenuation using silk was the first method used. Differentmethods are used to estimate the degree of closure that can be tolerated by the patient and will not causeportal hypertension, but they are time-consuming and not always equally reliable. If only partial closure ispossible, a second surgery may be needed. Gradual attenuation can be achieved using an ameroid constrictor(AC), cellophane banding (CB), a hydraulic occluder or thrombogenic coils. There is great interpatientvariability between the rate and degree of shunt closure when using an ameroid constrictor or cellophanebanding. Thrombogenic coils and hydraulic occluders appear to give a more controlled shunt closure, butfurther investigation is needed.
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pp 401-409
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