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English

80 (3) pp 185-192

Title: 
Functional brain imaging: a brief overview of imaging techniques and their use in human and canine anxiety research
Author(s): 
S. VERMEIRE, K. AUDENAERT, E. VANDERMEULEN, R. DE MEESTER, H. VAN BREE, A. DOBBELEIR, K. PEREMANS
Abstract: 
When used in combination with specific radioactive markers, functional imaging modalities such as SinglePhoton Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) enable thevisualization of several neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, as well as of the perfusion andmetabolism of the brain.This paper gives an overview of the functional imaging techniques, as well as of the studies that have beenperformed on humans and canines with anxiety disorders. Thus far, most of the research in this field has beenfocused on brain perfusion and the serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitters, and less on gammaaminobutyricacid (GABA), glutamate, norepinephrine and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
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pp 185-192
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80 (3) pp 175-184

Title: 
What’s in a brain: neuroanatomy and neurochemistry of anxiety disorders in dogs
Author(s): 
S. VERMEIRE, K. AUDENAERT, E. VANDERMEULEN, R. DE MEESTER, H. VAN BREE, A. DOBBELEIR, K. PEREMANS
Abstract: 
This review deals with the neurocircuitry of fear and anxiety disorders, with the focus on neuroanatomyand neurochemistry. This knowledge is required to correctly diagnose and treat dogs with anxiety-relatedbehavioral disorders.Research to date has shown the involvement of the frontal cortex, the amygdala, the thalamus and thehippocampus as core regions in regulating fear. Imbalances (hyper- or hypoactivation) in this fear circuitrycan trigger inappropriate fear responses, i.e. anxiety disorders.Serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters of emotion in the brain, butgamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis producingglucocorticoids are also important in the neurochemistry of anxiety.
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pp 175-184
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80 (4) pp 271-280

Title: 
Osteochondral fragments in the metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal joint and their clinical importance
Author(s): 
J. DECLERCQ, S. HAUSPIE, J. SAUNDERS, A. MARTENS
Abstract: 
The radiographic evaluation of the fetlock joint as part of a lameness or prepurchase examination oftenreveals osteochondral fragmentation. These fragments can either be causing lameness or have no clinicalimportance at the time of examination. However, they can cause lameness at a later stage. An appropriateanalysis of the situation requires a correct assessment of the fragment type and an up-to-date knowledge oftheir possible clinical importance. In this overview, the most common types of fetlock fragments, such asdorsoproximal first phalanx (P1) and proximal synovial pad fragments, as well as fragmentation on theproximal palmar/plantar border of P1 and of the sesamoid bones are discussed. A few cases of uncommonlarge fragmentation on the abaxial borders of P1 are included. Fetlock fractures, obviously causing lameness,such as dorsofrontal fractures of the proximal phalanx, distal metacarpal/metatarsal and sesamoid bonefractures, are not dealt with in this review.
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pp 271-280
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80 (4) pp 263-270

Title: 
Anatomy and imaging of the equine metacarpophalangeal/ metatarsophalangeal joint
Author(s): 
S. HAUSPIE, J. DECLERCQ, A. MARTENS, D.D. ZANI, E.H.J. BERGMAN, J.H. SAUNDERS
Abstract: 
The metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal joint is a high motion joint and is therefore prone to be injured.Lameness attributable to the metacarpo-/metatarsophalangeal joint is a frequent cause of early retirement fromathletic activity in horses and should therefore be detected as early as possible. The basis of the examination forlameness remains the clinical examination, including a complete motion examination in which the lameness isunambiguously localized by means of local anesthesia. A combination of radiography and ultrasonography isoften sufficient for visualizing the lesions.However, in the absence of clear radiological or ultrasonographical findings, more advanced imagingmodalities, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are necessary. The choiceof technique largely depends on the tissue characteristics of the expected lesion, the cost restraints of the owner,and the willingness to take the risk of general anesthesia.
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pp 263-270
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82 (1) pp 11-16

Title: 
Idiopathic hypercalcemia in a Persian cat
Author(s): 
E. STOCK, D. PAEPE, L. VERHAERT, I. VAN DE MAELE, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
This report describes a clinical case of idiopathic hypercalcemia in a cat. A male, castrated Persian catof seven years old was presented because of partial anorexia that had been present for the past three years.Blood examination revealed a moderate hypercalcemia with hypofosfatemia. Thorough diagnostic workuprevealed polycystic kidney disease and chronic kidney disease (IRIS stage 2). The hypercalcemia wasnot caused by the renal disease because the parathyroid hormone concentrations were normal, and becausethe cat had hypofosfatemia and an increased ionized calcium concentration. The cat was diagnosed withfeline idiopathic hypercalcemia. The clinical signs disappeared and the calcium concentrations normalizedafter therapy with glucocorticoids.
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pp 11-16
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82 (1) pp 3-10

Title: 
Clinical approach of feline hypercalcemia
Author(s): 
E. STOCK, D. PAEPE, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
An elevated total calcium concentration is an abnormality on feline blood examinations, and is frequentlyoverlooked. The most important causes of feline hypercalcemia are neoplasia, chronic kidneydisease and idiopathic hypercalcemia. In hypercalcemic cats, several diagnostic tests have to be performedin order to fi nd the underlying cause: a thorough physical examination, retroviral testing for felineleukemia virus and feline immunodefi ciency virus, complete blood count and serum chemistry profi le,the measurement of ionized calcium, urinalysis, thoracic (and abdominal) radiography, abdominal andcervical ultrasonography and the measurement of parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-relatedprotein. A logical and specifi c work-up is required to obtain a defi nitive diagnosis. Treatment is mainlyfocussed on the underlying disease.
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pp 03-10
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82 (4) pp 181-190

Title: 
Different methods to counteract mycotoxin production and its impact on animal health
Author(s): 
M. DEVREESE, P. DE BACKER, S. CROUBELS
Abstract: 
Mycotoxins can cause serious adverse effects on animal health. This may lead to great economiclosses in animal husbandry. In this review, the most common methods to counteract mycotoxinsare presented, including several pre- and post-harvest strategies as well as an overview of thedifferent mycotoxin detoxifying agents. The current legislation regarding maximum, guidanceor action levels of mycotoxin contamination in various feedstuffs is also mentioned. It allows theagricultural industry to interpret feed analysis results and to decide whether to undertake actionsor not.
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pp 181-190
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82 (4) pp 171-179

Title: 
Overview of the most important mycotoxins for the pig and poultry husbandry
Author(s): 
M. DEVREESE, P. DE BACKER, S. CROUBELS
Abstract: 
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi, which may be present on a variety ofcrops. They are considered a major issue worldwide because of their harmful effects on animals.These contaminants lead to great economic losses, especially in pig and poultry husbandry. Over400 mycotoxins have been identifi ed. However, only few of them have a signifi cant toxic effectand are of major concern. In this paper, the most important mycotoxins are described, includingdeoxynivalenol (DON), T-2 toxin (T-2), zearalenone (ZON), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxinA (OTA) and afl atoxin B1 (AFB1). For each toxin, its chemical structure, mode of action andsymptoms of acute and chronic toxicity in pigs and poultry are discussed.
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pp 171-179
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