Continuing professional development

English

87 (5) pg 283

Title: 
Laryngeal hemiplegia in the horse: an update
Author(s): 
E. DE CLERCQ, A. MARTENS
Abstract: 
Laryngeal hemiplegia is a progressive upper airway dysfunction in the horse. It is not onlyseen in thoroughbred racehorses but also in warmblood horses, draft horses and in ponies. Thecondition is most frequently seen on the left side. The left laryngeal recurrent nerve graduallyloses function and the function of the left cricoarythenoideus dorsalis muscle is compromised.This condition is most often idiopathic. It possibly leads to exercise intolerance but a respiratorynoise is often the primary complaint of the owner. Right sided laryngeal hemiplegia is almostalways related to other pathologies causing the nerve to malfunction. The diagnosis is not alwayseasy because of the restricted availability of endoscopy in the field. A better understanding oflaryngeal ultrasound examination might offer a new possibility in diagnosing laryngeal hemiplegia.If abnormal inspiratory sound is the only problem, laser treatment alone can be satisfactory.If the horse shows clear signs of exercise intolerance, further treatment is needed. If correctlyexecuted, the outcome of laryngoplasty is good. Other techniques, like nerve grafting and pacemakers,are being explored and might even be regarded as better alternative treatments in thefuture, as these are more physiologic compared to laryngoplasty. In sporthorses presented withidiopathic laryngeal neuropathy without postoperative complications, the prognosis is good.
Full text: 
pp 283-296
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87 (4) pp 228

Title: 
Cytology in Passeriformes: a useful diagnostic tool
Author(s): 
A. GARMYN, M. VERLINDEN
Abstract: 
Disease outbreaks in Passeriformes housed in group are often of infectious origin. Clinical signsobserved are often similar and non-specific. In these cases, cytology is an invaluable tool for developinga presumptive or definitive diagnosis that can guide disease management decisions within a flock. Inthe first part of this review, the basic principles of cytological sampling techniques and the evaluation ofthe cytological findings are described. In the second part, an overview of important infectious diseasesin Passeriformes is given, in which cytology may lead to a definitive or presumptive diagnosis.
Full text: 
pp 228-236
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87 (3) pp 164

Title: 
Feline arterial thromboembolism: prognostic factors and treatment
Author(s): 
L. LOCQUET, D. PAEPE, S. DAMINET, P. SMETS
Abstract: 
Feline arterial thromboembolism (ATE) is a complete or partial obstruction of a peripheral artery caused by a thrombus that was formed at a distant site. The most common underlying cause in cats is cardiomyopathy. Given the clinical presentation, often without preceding signs, an ATE event is considered one of the most distressing emergency conditions in feline practice. Often, these cats are euthanized at the time of diagnosis. However, recent scientific research has shown that a subpopulation of these patients may have long-term survival. In case of adequate treatment and follow-up, some cats survive over a year with a satisfying quality of life. Key points of ATE are the identification of specific prognostic factors in the individual patient in order to guide owner communication, the decision to treat or not to treat, individually adjusted patient management and regular monitoring, which are discussed in this article.
Full text: 
pp 150-175
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87 (2) pp 099

Title: 
Incomplete ossificatie van de humeruscondylen (IOHC) bij de hond
Author(s): 
I. GIELEN, Y. SAMOY, B. VAN RYSSEN
Abstract: 
Incomplete ossificatie van de humeruscondylen (IOHC) bij de hond is een vrij zeldzaamelleboogprobleem dat voornamelijk bij spaniëlrassen wordt gezien maar ook bij andere rassenkan voorkomen. Deze aandoening gaat niet altijd gepaard met klinische symptomen maarkan de aanleiding zijn van elleboogkreupelheid en zelfs condylaire humerusfracturen. Dediagnose van IOHC is niet altijd eenvoudig. Radiografisch is de fissuur niet altijd zichtbaar.Computertomografie is de meest efficiënte beeldvormingstechniek om deze aandoening metzekerheid te diagnosticeren. Indien het dier geen klachten vertoont, kan conservatieve therapieworden overwogen maar in geval van kreupelheid is het plaatsen van een compressieschroef demeest gangbare behandeling.
Full text: 
pp 099-104
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87 (1) pp 37

Title: 
Rational antimicrobial therapy for sepsis in cattle in face of the new legislation on critically important antimicrobials
Author(s): 
B. PARDON, P. DEPREZ
Abstract: 
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in cattle, as in humans. Successful sepsis treatment requiresa fast initiation of antimicrobial therapy with a broad-spectrum, bactericidal drug, administeredintravenously. However, the new legislation limits the use of critically important fluoroquinolonesand cephalosporins in food animal medicine, drugs which are considered highly effective for sepsistreatment and were previously frequently used for this indication. This article aims at providing anoverview of the current knowledge of sepsis in cattle to aid practitioners in adapting their decisionmaking process to treat sepsis. Sepsis incidence in cattle is likely seriously underestimated. Thisdisease is almost unexplored in cattle, which makes it particularly difficult to design species specificguidelines. Sepsis diagnosis by blood culture reaches sufficient accuracy with the current laboratorytechnology. When adapting this procedure to a field environment, difficulties might arise, andthe availability of adapted incubators in veterinary laboratories may be limited. However, thesedifficulties are likely to be overcome. Severe sepsis and septic shock are likely the only indicationswhere the ‘urgency’ criterion of the new legislation would apply, but it is important to realize thatalternative antimicrobial treatments with possibly similar efficacy are available.
Full text: 
pp 37-46
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86 (6) pp 379

Title: 
Het bepalen van het optimale tijdstip voor keizersnede bij de hond in functie van de voorspelde partusdatum
Author(s): 
T. GOESSENS, B. VAN GOETHEM, H. DE ROOSTER, E. VAN DER VEKENS, I. POLIS, A. VAN SOOM, E. WYDOOGHE
Abstract: 
Het optimale tijdstip bepalen voor de keizersnede bij de hond kan een uitdaging betekenenvoor de praktijkdierenarts. Er moet rekening gehouden worden met de berekende partusdatum,het al dan niet op gang zijn van de partus en het al dan niet aanwezig zijn van dystocie. Sommigeteven hebben een verlengde dracht, bij andere start de partus te vroeg. In beide gevallen is dekans op overleving van de pups zeer laag. Ook wanneer er bij dystocie te lang gewacht wordtom een keizersnede uit te voeren, komt de overleving van de pups in het gedrang. Het is daaromvan groot belang de juiste partusdatum bij elke individuele hond te kunnen voorspellen, zekerbij risicopatiënten. De partusdatum kan berekend worden door het begin van de metoestrus tebepalen via vaginale cytologie of door embryonale en foetale structuren te meten via echografie.De meest accurate methode is echter door middel van cyclusopvolging met progesteronmeting.
Full text: 
pp 379-387
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86 (5) pp 311

Title: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors
Author(s): 
L. VAN EETVELDE, K. CHIERS, L. VAN BRANTEGEM
Abstract: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are a commonly encountered neoplasia in small animalpractice. Ninety-six percent of the cMCT can be diagnosed with cytology. Because of the variatingbiological character, it’s difficult to establish a prognosis. Therefore, the prognosis is assessed withmultiple prognostic factors: tumor location, systemic complaints, metastases, histological and cytologicalgrading, proliferation markers, KIT-staining pattern, KIT-mutation and tumor free margins. Thetreatment of choice is based upon the results of these prognostic factors, the clinical stage and the tumorlocation. Possible treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, electrochemotherapy,tyrosine kinase inhibitors, cryotherapy and intraregional therapy with deionized water.
Full text: 
pp 311-322
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2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Biomechanical aspects of farriery in horses
Author(s): 
M. OOSTERLINCK, M. DUMOULIN, E. VAN DE WATER, F. PILLE
Abstract: 
In this paper, the current biomechanical concepts that are important for the evidence-basedapplication of trimming and shoeing techniques in the treatment of lameness in horses are reviewed.Hoof balance, shock absorption, grip versus sliding of the hoof, the pressure distribution within thehoof and hoof breakover are discussed. Moreover, possible effects on the hoof mechanism should betaken into account. Ideally, these issues should be considered in the prevention of injury rather than inthe treatment of established pathology.
Full text: 
pp 256-265
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86 (3) pp 183

Title: 
Pyothorax in cats and dogs
Author(s): 
F. GORRIS, S. FAUT, S. DAMINET, H. DE ROOSTER, J. H. SAUNDERS, D. PAEPE
Abstract: 
Pyothorax, or thoracic empyema, is an infection of the pleural space, characterized by theaccumulation of purulent exudate. It is a life-threatening emergency in dogs as well as in cats,with a guarded prognosis. Dyspnea and/or tachypnea, anorexia and lethargy are the mosttypical clinical signs. Diagnosis is usually straightforward, based on the clinical symptomscombined with pleural fluid analysis, including cytology and bacterial culture. Most commonly,oropharyngeal flora is isolated in the pleural fluid. Treatment can be medical or surgical, butneeds to be immediate and aggressive. In this article, an overview of the various causes of bothfeline and canine pyothorax with its similarities and differences is provided. Epidemiology,symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
Full text: 
pp 183-197
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86 (2) pp 105

Title: 
Congenital anomalies of the vertebrae in dogs
Author(s): 
L. DE RYCKE, J.H. SAUNDERS
Abstract: 
In this review article, a overview is given of the congenital pathologies of vertebrae in thedog. These pathologies are common in dogs and can be divided in two major groups: neural tubedefects or spinal dysraphism, such as spina bifida with or without meningocoele and dermal sinustract, and congenital anomalies of the vertebral column. The latter group can be subdivided inmalformations originating in the embryonic period of development, such as butterfly vertebra,mediolateral wedged vertebra and transitional vertebra, or in the foetal period, such as blockvertebra and dorsoventral wedged vertebra. Congenital vertebral anomalies can be incidentalfindings on radiographs or CT, but sometimes they can be the underlying cause of a clinical,mostly neurological problem. Due to pressure on the spinal cord, symptoms, such as pelvic limbataxia, paresis, loss of spinal reflexes, incontinence and atrophy of the pelvic limbs may occur.
Full text: 
pp 105-118
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