Continuing professional development

English

86 (6) pp 379

Title: 
Het bepalen van het optimale tijdstip voor keizersnede bij de hond in functie van de voorspelde partusdatum
Author(s): 
T. GOESSENS, B. VAN GOETHEM, H. DE ROOSTER, E. VAN DER VEKENS, I. POLIS, A. VAN SOOM, E. WYDOOGHE
Abstract: 
Het optimale tijdstip bepalen voor de keizersnede bij de hond kan een uitdaging betekenenvoor de praktijkdierenarts. Er moet rekening gehouden worden met de berekende partusdatum,het al dan niet op gang zijn van de partus en het al dan niet aanwezig zijn van dystocie. Sommigeteven hebben een verlengde dracht, bij andere start de partus te vroeg. In beide gevallen is dekans op overleving van de pups zeer laag. Ook wanneer er bij dystocie te lang gewacht wordtom een keizersnede uit te voeren, komt de overleving van de pups in het gedrang. Het is daaromvan groot belang de juiste partusdatum bij elke individuele hond te kunnen voorspellen, zekerbij risicopatiënten. De partusdatum kan berekend worden door het begin van de metoestrus tebepalen via vaginale cytologie of door embryonale en foetale structuren te meten via echografie.De meest accurate methode is echter door middel van cyclusopvolging met progesteronmeting.
Full text: 
pp 379-387
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86 (5) pp 311

Title: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors
Author(s): 
L. VAN EETVELDE, K. CHIERS, L. VAN BRANTEGEM
Abstract: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are a commonly encountered neoplasia in small animalpractice. Ninety-six percent of the cMCT can be diagnosed with cytology. Because of the variatingbiological character, it’s difficult to establish a prognosis. Therefore, the prognosis is assessed withmultiple prognostic factors: tumor location, systemic complaints, metastases, histological and cytologicalgrading, proliferation markers, KIT-staining pattern, KIT-mutation and tumor free margins. Thetreatment of choice is based upon the results of these prognostic factors, the clinical stage and the tumorlocation. Possible treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, electrochemotherapy,tyrosine kinase inhibitors, cryotherapy and intraregional therapy with deionized water.
Full text: 
pp 311-322
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2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Biomechanical aspects of farriery in horses
Author(s): 
M. OOSTERLINCK, M. DUMOULIN, E. VAN DE WATER, F. PILLE
Abstract: 
In this paper, the current biomechanical concepts that are important for the evidence-basedapplication of trimming and shoeing techniques in the treatment of lameness in horses are reviewed.Hoof balance, shock absorption, grip versus sliding of the hoof, the pressure distribution within thehoof and hoof breakover are discussed. Moreover, possible effects on the hoof mechanism should betaken into account. Ideally, these issues should be considered in the prevention of injury rather than inthe treatment of established pathology.
Full text: 
pp 256-265
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86 (3) pp 183

Title: 
Pyothorax in cats and dogs
Author(s): 
F. GORRIS, S. FAUT, S. DAMINET, H. DE ROOSTER, J. H. SAUNDERS, D. PAEPE
Abstract: 
Pyothorax, or thoracic empyema, is an infection of the pleural space, characterized by theaccumulation of purulent exudate. It is a life-threatening emergency in dogs as well as in cats,with a guarded prognosis. Dyspnea and/or tachypnea, anorexia and lethargy are the mosttypical clinical signs. Diagnosis is usually straightforward, based on the clinical symptomscombined with pleural fluid analysis, including cytology and bacterial culture. Most commonly,oropharyngeal flora is isolated in the pleural fluid. Treatment can be medical or surgical, butneeds to be immediate and aggressive. In this article, an overview of the various causes of bothfeline and canine pyothorax with its similarities and differences is provided. Epidemiology,symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
Full text: 
pp 183-197
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86 (2) pp 105

Title: 
Congenital anomalies of the vertebrae in dogs
Author(s): 
L. DE RYCKE, J.H. SAUNDERS
Abstract: 
In this review article, a overview is given of the congenital pathologies of vertebrae in thedog. These pathologies are common in dogs and can be divided in two major groups: neural tubedefects or spinal dysraphism, such as spina bifida with or without meningocoele and dermal sinustract, and congenital anomalies of the vertebral column. The latter group can be subdivided inmalformations originating in the embryonic period of development, such as butterfly vertebra,mediolateral wedged vertebra and transitional vertebra, or in the foetal period, such as blockvertebra and dorsoventral wedged vertebra. Congenital vertebral anomalies can be incidentalfindings on radiographs or CT, but sometimes they can be the underlying cause of a clinical,mostly neurological problem. Due to pressure on the spinal cord, symptoms, such as pelvic limbataxia, paresis, loss of spinal reflexes, incontinence and atrophy of the pelvic limbs may occur.
Full text: 
pp 105-118
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86 (1) pp 47

Title: 
Equine neurologic examination in practice
Author(s): 
J. RIJCKAERT, L. LEFÈRE EN G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
A thorough neurologic examination is required when a horse shows signs of neurological diseaseor when it has to be confirmed that the horse is neurologically normal. The main purpose of the examinationis to investigate whether there are neurological deficits. In addition, the identification ofthe primary cause and localization of the lesion should be attempted. A standardized head-to-tail approachhelps to avoid overlooking important lesions. Therefore, the examination always starts witha thorough patient history, observation of the horse with special attention to mental state, behavior,posture and stance, and a clinical examination. Subsequently, the cranial nerves are tested by investigating,amongst others, the menace, light and palpebral responses. The neck, trunk, limbs and tail areexamined for asymmetry or hypo- or hypersensitivity. Afterwards, the movements of the horse areinspected. Incoordination of the horse is accentuated during transitions, small circles and zig zag lines.However, the difference with orthopedic problems is not always easy to make. Especially horses inlateral recumbency present an extra challenge as recumbency itself may cause a change in responses.Further examinations are often necessary to confirm neurologic disease or to visualize a lesion. Bloodexamination (general, serology, virus isolation), liver or muscle biopsies, examination of cerebrospinalfluid and radiographs are feasible to perform in practice. In specialized hospitals, electro-diagnostictests and advanced medical imaging (CT, MRI, scintigraphy) are available. By combining these techniqueswith the clinical neurologic examination, a (differential) diagnosis can be made.
Full text: 
pp 47-55
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85 (6) pp 378

Title: 
Postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows: a review with emphasis on subclinical endometritis
Author(s): 
O. B. PASCOTTINI, G. OPSOMER
Abstract: 
In this review, updated and precise definitions of the most common postpartum uterine diseasesin dairy cows are provided. An aberrant uterine environment at inappropriate stages of thereproductive cycle inflicts damage to gametes and zygotes, impairing the reproductive performanceof dairy cows. This involves major economic losses for the milk production unit. Consequently,an accurate diagnosis of postpartum uterine diseases is indispensable for practitionersto set up a prompt and efficient treatment. This review furthermore emphasizes on the new perspectivesregarding diagnosis and treatment of subclinical endometritis, a highly prevalent uterinedisease that is often overlooked by practitioners while causing major reproductive problems.Based on a more profound clinical understanding of the postpartum uterine disease complex,practitioners will be able to better use the available diagnostic tools and therefore apply a moreefficient therapeutic approach.
Full text: 
pp 378-385
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85 (5) pp 309

Title: 
Belgian rabbits are also affected by the rabbit hemorrhagic disease type 2 virus
Author(s): 
K. HERMANS, I. MOEREMANS, M. VERLINDEN, A. GARMYN
Abstract: 
Since 2016, an extensive spread of RHDV2, a virus variant of the classical rabbit hemorrhagic diseasevirus (RHDV) is ongoing in the Belgian rabbit population. Both variants of the virus usually causeacute death without prior symptoms.Vaccination against both variants of the virus is possible. In Belgium, only a vaccine protectingagainst the classical RHDV has been registered. On their own responsibility, veterinarians are allowed–to import a vaccine protecting against RHDV2 that is registered in another EU member state,in accordance with the so-called legislative waterfall-system.The current epidemiological situation warrants preventive vaccination of rabbits against RHD. Itshould be noted that myxomatosis is currently rather neglected in view of the increased attention forthe RHDV2 spread. Myxomatosis also still causes a high mortality in both wild and domesticated rabbits.Veterinarians should correctly inform the public about the two important viral diseases in rabbitsand the possibilities for prevention.
Full text: 
pp 309-314
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85 (4) pg 225

Title: 
Equine dentistry in the 21st century – Part 2: Dental examination of the horse’s mouth and diagnostic techniques for detection of dental disease
Author(s): 
E. POLLARIS, E. VAN DER VEKENS, I. GIELEN, C.P. CRIJNS, L. VLAMINCK
Abstract: 
In the first part of this series of articles on modern equine dentistry, which was published in the fourthissue of this journal in 2015, different dental pathologies in the horse were reviewed. In this second part,the focus is directed towards how these diseases can be diagnosed. This involves the implementationof a proper oral examination combined with the use of correct terminology/nomenclature to record theencountered pathology on a dental record sheet. Several dental diagnostic imaging techniques, suchas oral endoscopy, radiography, computed tomography, scintigraphy and MRI provide complementaryinformation on the identification of the exact disease process, a prerequisite to deduct proper prognosticand therapeutic conclusions.
Full text: 
pp 225-236
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85 (3) pg 167

Title: 
Pet dog cancer models in search of novel therapeutic alternatives
Author(s): 
E. ABMA, L. CICCHELERO, H. DE ROOSTER, S. DAMINET, N.N. SANDERS
Abstract: 
In cancer research, rodent cancer models are a standard research tool. However, translation ofcancer research data from rodent to man is far from optimal. Hence, it is recommended that the efficacyof novel cancer drugs is confirmed in higher animal species before human trials are initiated. Pet dogswith spontaneous cancer are the perfect candidates in every respect. Dogs share a similar histologic,biologic and genetic cancer background significantly closer than the relationship between rodent andman. Furthermore, the development and interaction between tumor, host and tumor microenvironmentis comparable to those in humans. There are corresponding diagnostic and treatment options availablefor dogs and humans, while the progression of cancer in dogs is fast enough to obtain results within areasonable period of time. Lastly, pet dogs have a broader access to clinical trials than humans, enablingextensive research opportunities. Moreover, the dog also benefits from participation in clinical studies,since these studies offer an additional treatment option, and hence an additional chance of being cured.
Full text: 
pp 167-170
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