Continuing professional development

English

87 (2) pp 099

Title: 
Incomplete ossificatie van de humeruscondylen (IOHC) bij de hond
Author(s): 
I. GIELEN, Y. SAMOY, B. VAN RYSSEN
Abstract: 
Incomplete ossificatie van de humeruscondylen (IOHC) bij de hond is een vrij zeldzaamelleboogprobleem dat voornamelijk bij spaniëlrassen wordt gezien maar ook bij andere rassenkan voorkomen. Deze aandoening gaat niet altijd gepaard met klinische symptomen maarkan de aanleiding zijn van elleboogkreupelheid en zelfs condylaire humerusfracturen. Dediagnose van IOHC is niet altijd eenvoudig. Radiografisch is de fissuur niet altijd zichtbaar.Computertomografie is de meest efficiënte beeldvormingstechniek om deze aandoening metzekerheid te diagnosticeren. Indien het dier geen klachten vertoont, kan conservatieve therapieworden overwogen maar in geval van kreupelheid is het plaatsen van een compressieschroef demeest gangbare behandeling.
Full text: 
pp 099-104
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87 (1) pp 37

Title: 
Rational antimicrobial therapy for sepsis in cattle in face of the new legislation on critically important antimicrobials
Author(s): 
B. PARDON, P. DEPREZ
Abstract: 
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition in cattle, as in humans. Successful sepsis treatment requiresa fast initiation of antimicrobial therapy with a broad-spectrum, bactericidal drug, administeredintravenously. However, the new legislation limits the use of critically important fluoroquinolonesand cephalosporins in food animal medicine, drugs which are considered highly effective for sepsistreatment and were previously frequently used for this indication. This article aims at providing anoverview of the current knowledge of sepsis in cattle to aid practitioners in adapting their decisionmaking process to treat sepsis. Sepsis incidence in cattle is likely seriously underestimated. Thisdisease is almost unexplored in cattle, which makes it particularly difficult to design species specificguidelines. Sepsis diagnosis by blood culture reaches sufficient accuracy with the current laboratorytechnology. When adapting this procedure to a field environment, difficulties might arise, andthe availability of adapted incubators in veterinary laboratories may be limited. However, thesedifficulties are likely to be overcome. Severe sepsis and septic shock are likely the only indicationswhere the ‘urgency’ criterion of the new legislation would apply, but it is important to realize thatalternative antimicrobial treatments with possibly similar efficacy are available.
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pp 37-46
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86 (6) pp 379

Title: 
Het bepalen van het optimale tijdstip voor keizersnede bij de hond in functie van de voorspelde partusdatum
Author(s): 
T. GOESSENS, B. VAN GOETHEM, H. DE ROOSTER, E. VAN DER VEKENS, I. POLIS, A. VAN SOOM, E. WYDOOGHE
Abstract: 
Het optimale tijdstip bepalen voor de keizersnede bij de hond kan een uitdaging betekenenvoor de praktijkdierenarts. Er moet rekening gehouden worden met de berekende partusdatum,het al dan niet op gang zijn van de partus en het al dan niet aanwezig zijn van dystocie. Sommigeteven hebben een verlengde dracht, bij andere start de partus te vroeg. In beide gevallen is dekans op overleving van de pups zeer laag. Ook wanneer er bij dystocie te lang gewacht wordtom een keizersnede uit te voeren, komt de overleving van de pups in het gedrang. Het is daaromvan groot belang de juiste partusdatum bij elke individuele hond te kunnen voorspellen, zekerbij risicopatiënten. De partusdatum kan berekend worden door het begin van de metoestrus tebepalen via vaginale cytologie of door embryonale en foetale structuren te meten via echografie.De meest accurate methode is echter door middel van cyclusopvolging met progesteronmeting.
Full text: 
pp 379-387
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86 (5) pp 311

Title: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors
Author(s): 
L. VAN EETVELDE, K. CHIERS, L. VAN BRANTEGEM
Abstract: 
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (cMCT) are a commonly encountered neoplasia in small animalpractice. Ninety-six percent of the cMCT can be diagnosed with cytology. Because of the variatingbiological character, it’s difficult to establish a prognosis. Therefore, the prognosis is assessed withmultiple prognostic factors: tumor location, systemic complaints, metastases, histological and cytologicalgrading, proliferation markers, KIT-staining pattern, KIT-mutation and tumor free margins. Thetreatment of choice is based upon the results of these prognostic factors, the clinical stage and the tumorlocation. Possible treatments include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, electrochemotherapy,tyrosine kinase inhibitors, cryotherapy and intraregional therapy with deionized water.
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pp 311-322
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2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Biomechanical aspects of farriery in horses
Author(s): 
M. OOSTERLINCK, M. DUMOULIN, E. VAN DE WATER, F. PILLE
Abstract: 
In this paper, the current biomechanical concepts that are important for the evidence-basedapplication of trimming and shoeing techniques in the treatment of lameness in horses are reviewed.Hoof balance, shock absorption, grip versus sliding of the hoof, the pressure distribution within thehoof and hoof breakover are discussed. Moreover, possible effects on the hoof mechanism should betaken into account. Ideally, these issues should be considered in the prevention of injury rather than inthe treatment of established pathology.
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pp 256-265
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86 (3) pp 183

Title: 
Pyothorax in cats and dogs
Author(s): 
F. GORRIS, S. FAUT, S. DAMINET, H. DE ROOSTER, J. H. SAUNDERS, D. PAEPE
Abstract: 
Pyothorax, or thoracic empyema, is an infection of the pleural space, characterized by theaccumulation of purulent exudate. It is a life-threatening emergency in dogs as well as in cats,with a guarded prognosis. Dyspnea and/or tachypnea, anorexia and lethargy are the mosttypical clinical signs. Diagnosis is usually straightforward, based on the clinical symptomscombined with pleural fluid analysis, including cytology and bacterial culture. Most commonly,oropharyngeal flora is isolated in the pleural fluid. Treatment can be medical or surgical, butneeds to be immediate and aggressive. In this article, an overview of the various causes of bothfeline and canine pyothorax with its similarities and differences is provided. Epidemiology,symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are discussed.
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pp 183-197
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86 (2) pp 105

Title: 
Congenital anomalies of the vertebrae in dogs
Author(s): 
L. DE RYCKE, J.H. SAUNDERS
Abstract: 
In this review article, a overview is given of the congenital pathologies of vertebrae in thedog. These pathologies are common in dogs and can be divided in two major groups: neural tubedefects or spinal dysraphism, such as spina bifida with or without meningocoele and dermal sinustract, and congenital anomalies of the vertebral column. The latter group can be subdivided inmalformations originating in the embryonic period of development, such as butterfly vertebra,mediolateral wedged vertebra and transitional vertebra, or in the foetal period, such as blockvertebra and dorsoventral wedged vertebra. Congenital vertebral anomalies can be incidentalfindings on radiographs or CT, but sometimes they can be the underlying cause of a clinical,mostly neurological problem. Due to pressure on the spinal cord, symptoms, such as pelvic limbataxia, paresis, loss of spinal reflexes, incontinence and atrophy of the pelvic limbs may occur.
Full text: 
pp 105-118
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86 (1) pp 47

Title: 
Equine neurologic examination in practice
Author(s): 
J. RIJCKAERT, L. LEFÈRE EN G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
A thorough neurologic examination is required when a horse shows signs of neurological diseaseor when it has to be confirmed that the horse is neurologically normal. The main purpose of the examinationis to investigate whether there are neurological deficits. In addition, the identification ofthe primary cause and localization of the lesion should be attempted. A standardized head-to-tail approachhelps to avoid overlooking important lesions. Therefore, the examination always starts witha thorough patient history, observation of the horse with special attention to mental state, behavior,posture and stance, and a clinical examination. Subsequently, the cranial nerves are tested by investigating,amongst others, the menace, light and palpebral responses. The neck, trunk, limbs and tail areexamined for asymmetry or hypo- or hypersensitivity. Afterwards, the movements of the horse areinspected. Incoordination of the horse is accentuated during transitions, small circles and zig zag lines.However, the difference with orthopedic problems is not always easy to make. Especially horses inlateral recumbency present an extra challenge as recumbency itself may cause a change in responses.Further examinations are often necessary to confirm neurologic disease or to visualize a lesion. Bloodexamination (general, serology, virus isolation), liver or muscle biopsies, examination of cerebrospinalfluid and radiographs are feasible to perform in practice. In specialized hospitals, electro-diagnostictests and advanced medical imaging (CT, MRI, scintigraphy) are available. By combining these techniqueswith the clinical neurologic examination, a (differential) diagnosis can be made.
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pp 47-55
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85 (6) pp 378

Title: 
Postpartum uterine diseases in dairy cows: a review with emphasis on subclinical endometritis
Author(s): 
O. B. PASCOTTINI, G. OPSOMER
Abstract: 
In this review, updated and precise definitions of the most common postpartum uterine diseasesin dairy cows are provided. An aberrant uterine environment at inappropriate stages of thereproductive cycle inflicts damage to gametes and zygotes, impairing the reproductive performanceof dairy cows. This involves major economic losses for the milk production unit. Consequently,an accurate diagnosis of postpartum uterine diseases is indispensable for practitionersto set up a prompt and efficient treatment. This review furthermore emphasizes on the new perspectivesregarding diagnosis and treatment of subclinical endometritis, a highly prevalent uterinedisease that is often overlooked by practitioners while causing major reproductive problems.Based on a more profound clinical understanding of the postpartum uterine disease complex,practitioners will be able to better use the available diagnostic tools and therefore apply a moreefficient therapeutic approach.
Full text: 
pp 378-385
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85 (5) pp 309

Title: 
Belgian rabbits are also affected by the rabbit hemorrhagic disease type 2 virus
Author(s): 
K. HERMANS, I. MOEREMANS, M. VERLINDEN, A. GARMYN
Abstract: 
Since 2016, an extensive spread of RHDV2, a virus variant of the classical rabbit hemorrhagic diseasevirus (RHDV) is ongoing in the Belgian rabbit population. Both variants of the virus usually causeacute death without prior symptoms.Vaccination against both variants of the virus is possible. In Belgium, only a vaccine protectingagainst the classical RHDV has been registered. On their own responsibility, veterinarians are allowed–to import a vaccine protecting against RHDV2 that is registered in another EU member state,in accordance with the so-called legislative waterfall-system.The current epidemiological situation warrants preventive vaccination of rabbits against RHD. Itshould be noted that myxomatosis is currently rather neglected in view of the increased attention forthe RHDV2 spread. Myxomatosis also still causes a high mortality in both wild and domesticated rabbits.Veterinarians should correctly inform the public about the two important viral diseases in rabbitsand the possibilities for prevention.
Full text: 
pp 309-314
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