Review(s)

English

84 (2) pg 63-72

Title: 
Characteristics of and future perspectives on mesenchymal stem cells in dogs
Author(s): 
F. COMBES, E. DE BAKKER, C. DE SCHAUWER, E. MEYER
Abstract: 
The therapeutic use of canine mesenchymal stem cells (cMSC) is rapidly expanding. MSC are stromalcells, which show multipotent stem cell properties in vitro. They possess trophic, immunoregulatory,antimicrobial and hematopoiesis-supportive properties. Moreover, injected MSC are able to migrate tosites of hypoxia and inflammation. Recently, more evidence has become available showing that MSCmay originate from pericytes. Different microenvironments as well as non-standardized methods fortheir isolation and expansion lead to heterogeneous cell populations. Further research is essential inorder to use these promising therapies without restrictions in dogs.
Full text: 
pp 063-072
Review(s)

84(1) pg 3

Title: 
Consumption of red and processed meat and human colorectal cancer. Is there a link?
Author(s): 
K.J.M. Van Hoof, L.Y. Hemeryck, L. Vanhaecke
Abstract: 
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease that affects more than one million people every year. Inparticular in economically transitioning countries with progressing industrialization and urbanization,an increase in incidence has been observed, as such underlining the importance of environmentalfactors in the pathogeneses of CRC. One of these factors is the consumption of fresh and processedred meat.Although decennia ago, a link was discovered between the consumption of red and processedmeat and the development of CRC, there is still controversy surrounding this topic. The results ofepidemiologic studies are often inconsistent and recommendations made about the negative impact ofmeat consumption may have big consequences for the meat industry.An important step to make scientifically based recommendations about het consumption of redand processed meat, is the identification of the underlying mechanisms that may explain the harmfuleffects of meat. Several different hypotheses have been put forward and examined recently.
Full text: 
pp 3-9
Review(s)

83(6) pg 284-292

Title: 
The external ear canal of cetaceans: vestigial or not?
Author(s): 
S. DE VREESE, M. DOOM, J. HAELTERS, P. CORNILLIE
Abstract: 
Cetaceans descend from land mammals. Consequently, their hearing apparatus basically consistsof the same anatomical components. Whales, as land mammals, feature an outer, middle and inner ear.However, these structures show strong evolutionary adaptations to underwater hearing. In addition,other morphological elements, such as the mandibles and the associated acoustic fat, have acquired anacoustical function in the propagation of sound waves to the middle ear. The original function of otherstructures such as the external auditory canal is therefore questioned. How cetaceans hear is not yetfully understood. However, it is essential to clarify this in order to assess the impact of anthropogenicunderwater sound, since high-energy underwater sound may lead to physical trauma and hearing loss,physiological stress and behavioral changes. In this study, the external ear canal of a white-beakeddolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and a common minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) aredescribed and compared based on histological cross sections. These external ear canals seemed rudimentary,with a small to absent lumen. However, the blood supply, well-developed muscles, activeglands and numerous nerve fibres could indicate some functionality. Moreover, the presence of numerousstructures with a morphological similarity to lamellar corpuscles also could advert to a functionalstructure. Although the function of these potential mechanoreceptors is not known, they could play apart in pressure perception in these diving mammals.
Full text: 
pp 284-293
Review(s)

83(6) pg 275

Title: 
Canine recurrent flank alopecia: a synthesis of theory and practice
Author(s): 
S. VANDENABEELE, J. DECLERCQ, H. DE COCK, S. DAMINET
Abstract: 
 Canine recurrent flank alopecia is a non-inflammatory, non-scarring alopecia of unknownetiology and has a visually striking clinical presentation. Although this disease entity is relativelycommon in the northern hemisphere, there is only scant information in the literature regardingcase descriptions. The aim of this article was to review the literature and to describe clinicalpresentations recognized in practice, which are not always extensively documented in theliterature. 
Full text: 
pp 275-283
Review(s)

83(5) pg 234

Title: 
Portal vein hypoplasia in dogs
Author(s): 
N. DEVRIENDT, M. OR, D. PAEPE, E. VANDERMEULEN, M. HESTA, H.E.V. DE COCK, H. DE ROOSTER
Abstract: 
Portal vein hypoplasia (PVH) is a congenital disorder, in which microscopic intrahepaticshunts are present, causing blood to bypass the liver sinusoids. As the clinical presentation andthe laboratory findings are similar to those in dogs with an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt(EHPSS), differentiation between both disorders is based on the confirmation of a macroscopicshunt by diagnostic imaging techniques. This review highlights the major aspects of PVH, includingthe differentiation from EHPSSs, and the challenges to diagnose both disorders in dogswith concurrent PVH and EHPSS.
Full text: 
pp 234-239
Review(s)

83 (4) 155-163

Title: 
Characteristics and challenges of the modern Belgian veal industry
Author(s): 
B. PARDON, B. CATRY, R. BOONE, H. THEYS, K. DE BLEECKER, J. DEWULF, P. DEPREZ
Abstract: 
In this paper, the modern Belgian veal industry is situated in a European context, and anoverview is provided of the major past, present and future challenges for veal production. Theproduction of white veal requires a specific diet and housing conditions to assure a controllediron anemic state resulting in pale carcasses. In response to the increasing public concern aboutanimal welfare, legal limits for hemoglobin (in 1990), the provision of a minimum quality of solidfeed to assure ruminal health and group housing from the age of eight weeks on (in 2007), havebeen implemented sector-wide. The integrated structure of the sector likely made it possibleto realize these radical changes at relatively short notice. Despite the pioneers role the vealindustry played in the development of quality labels for food safety and all efforts made towardsimproved nutrition and housing, the veal production remains highly liable to public criticism onwelfare issues. Nowadays, especially the intensive antimicrobial use in relation to high levels ofantimicrobial resistance in commensal, pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria in veal calves is stronglycriticized. The future challenge lies in the development of veal production systems, which requireonly few antibiotics, but safeguard animal welfare and revenue.
Full text: 
pp 155-163
Review(s)

82 (6) pp 337-344

Title: 
Neonatal isoerythrolysis in cats
Author(s): 
F. Snoeck, T. Rijsselaere, A. Van Soom
Abstract: 
Neonatal isoerythrolysis in kittens can only occur when the queen has blood type B and the tomcat blood type A or AB. During the first 24 hours after birth, kittens ingest colostral antibodies, which reach the systemic circulation through the bowel. Kittens with blood type A absorb antibodies, which destroy their erythrocytes. Kittens that develop symptoms, such as anemia, hemoglobininuria or icterus, should be given a blood transfusion. However, the survival rate is very low, and prevention is of utmost importance. This can be done by determining the blood type of queens and tomcats intended for breeding with breeds at risk. Ideally, a queen with blood type B and a tomcat with blood type A or AB should not be mated. However, if this combination occurs, the kittens should be removed from the mother during the first 24 hours after birth. Subsequently, they have to be fed with artificial milk and be given oral or subcutaneous plasma from a well-immunized cat with blood type A. 
Full text: 
pp 337-344
Review(s)

82 (6) pp 327-336

Title: 
Toepassingen van mesenchymale stamcellen bij het paard: huidige stand van zaken
Author(s): 
C. De Schauwer, E. Meyer, G. Van de Walle, A. Van Soom
Abstract: 
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult stem cells, which are capable of self-renewal and restricted differentiation into multiple organ-specific cell types. The significant therapeutic potential of MSC arises from their ability to promote tissue regeneration, prevent pathological scar formation, modulate immune responses and regulate inflammation. At present, MSC are mainly used in veterinary medicine to treat musculoskeletal injuries. Nevertheless, they may as well play a role in the treatment of several non-orthopedic diseases, such as immune-mediated, ischemic, inflammatory and neurological diseases. The treatment efficiency of MSC therapy can be influenced by the number of MSC which is used to treat the horse, the way the MSC are administered and the timing of the treatment. Moreover, there are advantages as well as disadvantages correlated to the use of autologous versus allogeneic MSC. The use of MSC in the treatment of equine injury has exciting potential. However, more fundamental research and well-designed clinical trials remain mandatory in order to safeguard the optimal routine clinical use of these valuable equine MSC at the patients’ benefit.
Full text: 
pp 327-336
Review(s)

82 (5) pp 265-272

Title: 
Impact of noise pollution on sea mammals
Author(s): 
M. Doom, P. Cornillie, I. Gielen, J. Haelters
Abstract: 
Miljoenen jaren geleden migreerden de voorouders van de huidige walvissen (Cetacea) van zee naar land. Deze evolutionaire gebeurtenis vergde ingrijpende morfologische aanpassingen. Voorpoten veranderden in flippers, achterpoten werden rudimentair en de neusgaten verplaatsten zich naar dorsaal op de schedel om als spuitgat te fungeren. Ook de zintuigen ondergingen drastische adaptaties. Gezien het zicht op grote diepte en in troebel water zeer beperkt is, rekenen walvissen op andere zintuigen dan het zicht om te navigeren, foerageren, jagen, communiceren met soortgenoten, etc. De productie en perceptie van geluidsgolven werden cruciaal voor het voortbestaan van deze wonderbaarlijke schepselen van de zee. Sommige soorten ontwikkelden zelfs echolocatie, gebaseerd op de natuurkundige principes van de geluidsleer, als bijkomend hulpmiddel om obstakels onder water te lokaliseren. Het spreekt voor zich dat elke verstoring van het gehoormechanisme levensbedreigend kan zijn voor deze dieren. Onderzoek naar het effect van geluidspollutie door menselijke activiteit op het mariene leven vraagt een multidisciplinaire aanpak. Een accurate berichtgeving van deze onderzoeksresultaten aan de beleidsmakers is cruciaal om de meest kwetsbare walvisachtigen te beschermen.
Full text: 
pp 265-272
Review(s)

82 (5) pp 259-264

Title: 
Staphylococcus hyicus infections in pigs
Author(s): 
D. Maes, T. Vandersmissen, E. de Jong, F. Boyen, F. Haesebrouck
Abstract: 
Staphylococcus hyicus is the causative agent of exudative epidermitis, an important skin disease in pigs. The classical form is characterized by general dermatitis and epidermitis without pruritis and by dehydration and death. This form of the disease mainly occurs in pigs younger than eight weeks. Localized forms with lesions at the eartips, the head, the flanks and the other extremities also occur, especially in pigs older than six weeks. Toxins produced by S. hyicus, together with predisposing factors causing skin lesions are important for the development of clinical symptoms. The clinical symptoms and lesions are typical, but the isolation of the bacterium from the lesions is necessary to confirm the diagnosis. The treatment entails fluid therapy, the topical use of antiseptics and the use of antimicrobials. Control is based on the prevention of skin lesions, the optimization of the housing conditions, stable climate and nutrition, and the application of sanitary and hygienic measures in the stables to lower the infection pressure.
Full text: 
pp 259-264
Review(s)

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