Review(s)

English

86 (6) pp 339

Title: 
The use of psychoactive drugs in psychogenic feather-picking parrots
Author(s): 
J. GORTEMAN, G. ANTONISSEN, S. CROUBELS, Y. VAN ZEELAND
Abstract: 
Feather damaging behavior is a common problem in captive parrots (Psittaciformes). Besides medicalindications, socio-environmental and neurobiologic causes may underlie the behavior, in which case it isoften referred to as psychogenic feather picking. The treatment of this behavior problem is primarily basedon environmental changes, e.g. enrichment activities, and behavior modification therapy. When thesemeasures provide insufficient or lack of effect, pharmacologic intervention using psychoactive drugs maybe considered. However, the correct use of these drugs requires in depth knowledge of the mechanism ofaction, pharmacokinetic characteristics and toxicity of the selected drug. Since specific information on theuse of psychoactive drugs in birds is often lacking, the (off-label) use of these drugs will in most instancesbe based on empirical findings and dose extrapolation from mammals. This in turn may carry risks, asthe metabolism and sensitivity towards the drug can greatly differ between birds and mammals, therebyresulting in therapy failure and/or serious side effects. Consequently, consideration of these limitationsand careful monitoring of the patient are needed to use psychoactive drugs responsibly in pet birds.    
Full text: 
pp 339-350
Review(s)

86 (5) pp 275

Title: 
Substrate use in horses during exercise – the ‘fasted’ compared to the postprandial state
Author(s): 
J. ROBYN, L. PLANCKE, B. BOSHUIZEN, C. DE MEEÛS, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
Training in the fasted state has beneficial effects on performance in the human athlete. In the horse,training in the fasted state is associated with an increased mobilization of non-esterified fatty acids(NEFA) as an energy source. This is in contrast with postprandial (grain-fed) training, during whichlipolysis is suppressed. A higher NEFA availability is thought to reduce muscle glycogen depletion andmuscle acidification. This could aid in delaying muscle fatigue. The equine gastrointestinal tract androughage rich diet do not allow a real ‘fasted’ state. Luckily, roughage does not induce high plasmainsulin peaks, and therefore does not have the same negative effects as grain feeding. Furthermore,the roughage-containing hindgut serves as a fluid and electrolyte buffer and continuously provides theliver with propionic acid, a precursor used in gluconeogenesis. In horses, unlike in human athletes,there is still a lot to discover when it comes to optimal pre-exercise feeding management throughoutcompetition and training. However, whatever approach is chosen, high quality roughage needs to be thekey ingredient of the equine diet. In sport horses with high energy demands, feeding good quality roughagemay be combined with fibre rich concentrates, pelleted roughages sources or vegetal oil insteadof starch rich concentrates to reach the energy requirements for intensive work. Last but not least,feeding multiple small meals throughout the day is preferred over feeding a larger meal twice a day.
Full text: 
pp 275-285
Review(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Effects of training on equine muscle physiology and muscle adaptations in response to different training approaches
Author(s): 
R. VERMEULEN, C. DE MEEÛS, L. PLANCKE, B. BOSHUIZEN, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
It is well known that exercise induces chemical, metabolic and structural changes in muscles.However, the effect of the type of exercise on these changes has not been thoroughly studied inhorses yet, because of a lack of standardized study methods. In this review, the effect of threedifferent types of exercise on muscle adaptation and metabolic responses is investigated. Therequirements for power exercise are not the same as for low intensity exercise. Each type oftraining induces its own shift in muscle fiber typing, as well as in enzyme concentrations and (an)aerobic capacity. These physiological adaptations in response to training facilitate more efficientexercise and therefore increase performance. Hence, it is important to know the adaptations thatmuscles undergo in response to each type of exercise to optimize training management of sporthorses in function of the needs of the discipline in which they compete.
Full text: 
pp 224-231
Review(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Potential welfare issues of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) at the retailer and in the hobbyist aquarium
Author(s): 
C.C.F. PLEEGING, C.P.H. MOONS
Abstract: 
Betta splendens is an extremely popular ornamental fish among hobby aquarists. It has aninteresting behavioral repertoire, particularly where male aggression and territoriality are concerned.The lack of scientific studies investigating optimal housing conditions in combinationwith the wide variety of commercially available husbandry products, raises questions about thewelfare status of these fish in captivity. In this article, an overview of the available literature onthe biology of the betta and general considerations of ornamental fish keeping is given, and environment-and animal-related factors with potential impact on the welfare of Betta splendensare examined. Although more research using biological and physiological indicators is needed,the following factors constituting welfare problems have been identified: an aquarium of limiteddimensions, prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. infection, aggression to and from conspecifics orother species in the same aquarium and the limited ability to escape, potential for stress due toprolonged visual contact between males in shops and during shows, and the lack of environmentalenrichment in the form of sheltering vegetation.
Full text: 
pp 213-223
Review(s)

2017 - 86(4)

Title: 
Microplastics: minuscule particles with big consequences?
Author(s): 
S. KNOLL, A. DECOSTERE, A.M. DECLERCQ
Abstract: 
Since the mass production of plastics, contamination of the marine environment with thesepersistent synthetic materials has become an ever-increasing problem. Lately, it has become clear thatmicroplastics play a big part in this. These small plastic particles (< 5mm) are ubiquitous in seawaterand sediments. There are various entryways, such as fragmentation of macroplastics and drainage ofprimary microplastic via wastewater. Recent studies have shown that microplastics may be ingested bynumerous marine organisms. This could result in diverse health effects, including mechanical injuryand cellular toxicity. Adverse effects of microplastics are possibly enhanced by the contamination ofthese plastic particles with toxic chemicals. Furthermore, microplastics and microplastic contaminantscould accumulate in the food chain, eventually affecting humans. Despite the growing number ofpublications on microplastics, there are still many unanswered questions regarding this topic. In thisarticle, the contemporary knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment is provided.
Full text: 
pp 203-212
Review(s)

86 (3) pp 148

Title: 
Diagnostic approach of the cryptorchid stallion
Author(s): 
L. DE LANGE, K. ROELS, C. VERVERS, M. VAN DE VELDE, P. CORTY, J. GOVAERE
Abstract: 
The diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses is often a challenge. Based on the history, clinicaland rectal examinations and ultrasonography, a definitive diagnosis is not always possible. Variousendocrinological diagnostic assays, such as the determination of testosterone, androstenedione,estrogens, urinary steroids and the anti-Müllerian hormone, which demonstrate the presence oftesticular tissue, have been described. These tests all have their advantages and disadvantages, whichare discussed in this article in order to help practitioners in the field.
Full text: 
pp 148-154
Review(s)

86 (3) pp 136

Title: 
Pathophysiology of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in birds
Author(s): 
R. HOUBEN, S. CROUBELS, A. WATTEYN, G. ANTONISSEN
Abstract: 
Inflammation is a protective response to infection and/or tissue damage and it induces migration ofimmune cells and mediators of immune response from the circulation to the infected and/or damagedtissue. This response will remove the initial noxe (e.g. lipopolysaccharide or LPS) and tissue healing willbe stimulated. LPS is part of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and causes an inflammatoryresponse in birds due to its proinflammatory properties. As a result to this inflammatory response,birds develop a change in body temperature, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines andacute phase proteins, show leukocytosis and sickness behavior. The magnitude of these symptomsin birds depends on the bird species and differs from the symptoms in mammals. The characteristicsand pathophysiology of an inflammatory response are frequently studied using LPS inflammationmodels. These models can further be applied for pharmacodynamic studies to assess the clinical effectof different anti-inflammatory drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs. In thispaper, an overview of the LPS-induced inflammatory response in birds is given.
Full text: 
pp 136-147
Review(s)

86 (3) pp 127

Title: 
Negative pressure wound therapy: the past and the future
Author(s): 
M.L. GO, M. OR, B. VAN GOETHEM, A. KITSHOFF, E. ABMA, H. DE ROOSTER
Abstract: 
Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) involves the application of negative pressure on a woundbed for its positive effects on wound healing. Indications for NPWT concern various types of wounds, skingrafts and flaps, partial-thickness burns, open abdomen management and closed incisions.Negative pressure wound therapy has been used for centuries in human medicine. Its first use datesback to the Roman era (around 27 BCE) when human generated pressures were used. Later, Europeanand Russian physicians developed various advanced methods and systems to apply negative pressureon wounds or other injuries. The on-going positive findings in human medicine triggered researchers inveterinary medicine to apply this technique on animal patients.However, much still has to be investigated regarding NPWT, especially in veterinary medicine, as thereare many factors playing a role in the mechanisms of this treatment. New methods and techniques arecontinuously being developed and the existing studies show great potential for NPWT.
Full text: 
pp 127-135
Review(s)

86 (2) pp 63

Title: 
Standardized exercise tests in horses: current situation and future perspectives
Author(s): 
L. DE MARE, B. BOSHUIZEN, L. PLANCKE, C. DE MEEUS, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
The purpose of this literature review is to clarify how exercise capacity can be measured inhorses and which standardized exercise tests (SETs) exist. In this review, the measurement of theexercise capacity of horses is discussed and the standardized exercise tests (SET) are described.Two main types of SETs are used. Laboratory or treadmill tests are easy to standardize andprovide more options to use all kinds of measuring devices, since the horse stays on the treadmill.On the other hand, field tests are conducted under the natural conditions associated with thespecific sports discipline, and are easier to implement in the training schedule. However, field testsencompass interfering variables, such as weather conditions, ground surface conditions and therider or jockey. Several variables are measured in order to calculate the fitness level which may beexpressed by different parameters, such as V200 (speed at a heart rate of 200 beats per minute),Vla4 (speed at a blood lactic acid level of 4 mmol/L) and VO2max (maximum oxygen uptake).
Full text: 
pp 063-072
Review(s)

85(6) pp 323

Title: 
Physiotherapy in small animal medicine
Author(s): 
Y. SAMOY, B. VAN RYSSEN, J. SAUNDERS
Abstract: 
The benefits of physiotherapy have been extensively demonstrated in human medicine. Althoughphysiotherapy has been performed in veterinary medicine for already several decades,it is only very recently that scientific research on this subject is increasing. The purpose of thispaper is to give an overview of the different veterinary physiotherapeutic assessment andtreatment techniques and possibilities, and correlate them to the data in the veterinary literature.
Full text: 
pp 323-334
Review(s)

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