Review(s)

English

87 (2) pp 66

Title: 
Trypanosoma equiperdum in the horse – a neglected threat?
Author(s): 
Y. AHMED, A. HAGOS, B. MERGA, A. VAN SOOM, L. DUCHATEAU, B.M. GODDEERIS, J. GOVAERE
Abstract: 
Dourine is a contagious disease caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum that is transmitteddirectly from animal to animal during coitus. Dourine is known as an important disease in manycountries, and it threatens equidae worldwide. It is reported to be widespread in South America,Eastern Europe, Russia, Mongolia, Namibia and Ethiopia. The disease can be carried to variousparts of the world through the transportation of infected animals and semen. Since knowledgeof the prepatent infectiousness of a recently infected animal is lacking, introduction of thedisease is in principle an ever-present threat. Definitive diagnosis depends on the identificationof the parasite by means of direct microscopy. This is rarely possible in practice and therefore,diagnosis in the field is based on the observation of typical clinical signs, together with serologicaltests. This paper is an endeavour to review briefly and compile information on the appearanceand importance of Dourine in terms of its epidemiological and clinical features, as well as on itsdiagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
Full text: 
pp 66-75
Review(s)

87 (2) pp 59

Title: 
Stress in wild and captive snakes: quantification, effects and the importance of management
Author(s): 
J. VAN WAEYENBERGE, J. AERTS, T. HELLEBUYCK, F. PASMANS, A. MARTEL
Abstract: 
As in other animals, distress and impaired welfare have a deleterious effect on the mental,physical and behavioral health of snakes in the wild and in captivity. Besides anthropogenicdisturbance, the availability of food and shelter, the presence of predators, and environmentalfactors, such as seasonality and climatological changes, are important factors that affect thestress level and subsequent welfare in wild snake populations. In captive snakes, inappropriatemanagement is the most prominent cause of chronic stress and impaired welfare. Chronicstress can be assumed by looking at the snake’s behavior, but there is need for a standardizedquantification method to pin-point more accurately (chronic) stress levels. The biomarkersuitable in this framework is the level of corticosterone in plasma, feces and shed skin.
Full text: 
pp 059-065
Review(s)

87 (1) pp 14

Title: 
Tricuspid valve dysplasia in dogs
Author(s): 
S. FAVRIL, B.J.G. BROECKX , H. DE ROOSTER, P. SMETS, L. PEELMAN, V.C. BAVEGEMS
Abstract: 
A general overview of tricuspid valve dysplasia in dogs is presented in this review. This congenitaldisease has been described in numerous large dog breeds but especially the Labradorretriever is predisposed. The condition is relatively uncommon, with a prevalence of approximatelyseven percent of all congenital heart diseases in dogs. The asymptomatic phase may lastfor several years and depends on the severity of the valve malformation. In the clinical phase,exercise intolerance, fatigue, anorexia, cardiac cachexia, dyspnea and signs of right-sided congestiveheart failure can be present. Echocardiography including Doppler imaging is warranted toconfirm the diagnosis. Curative treatment involves surgical valve replacement but is technicallychallenging and still in its experimental phase in dogs. As such, treatment in dogs involves theadministration of supportive medication once the dogs develop symptoms of congestive heartfailure and consists of diuretics, ace-inhibitors and positive inotropic drugs.
Full text: 
pp 14-21
Review(s)

87 (1) pp 3

Title: 
Equine dentistry in the 21st century - Part 3: Treatment of dental problems
Author(s): 
E. POLLARIS, S. SCHAUVLIEGE, L. VLAMINCK
Abstract: 
Equine dental pathology and its diagnosis have been described in part 1 and 2 (published in 2015and 2016 respectively) of this series of articles on equine dentistry. In this third and last part, differenttreatment options are discussed and the cases, in which they can be applied, are highlighted. Alongwith the growing interest in equine dentistry and the increasing knowledge about it, the treatment optionsand the available instrumentation have strongly evolved over the years. This enables both thefield veterinarian and the more specialized veterinary surgeon to perform efficient treatment of a widevariety of dental pathologies.
Full text: 
pp 03-13
Review(s)

86 (6) pp 339

Title: 
The use of psychoactive drugs in psychogenic feather-picking parrots
Author(s): 
J. GORTEMAN, G. ANTONISSEN, S. CROUBELS, Y. VAN ZEELAND
Abstract: 
Feather damaging behavior is a common problem in captive parrots (Psittaciformes). Besides medicalindications, socio-environmental and neurobiologic causes may underlie the behavior, in which case it isoften referred to as psychogenic feather picking. The treatment of this behavior problem is primarily basedon environmental changes, e.g. enrichment activities, and behavior modification therapy. When thesemeasures provide insufficient or lack of effect, pharmacologic intervention using psychoactive drugs maybe considered. However, the correct use of these drugs requires in depth knowledge of the mechanism ofaction, pharmacokinetic characteristics and toxicity of the selected drug. Since specific information on theuse of psychoactive drugs in birds is often lacking, the (off-label) use of these drugs will in most instancesbe based on empirical findings and dose extrapolation from mammals. This in turn may carry risks, asthe metabolism and sensitivity towards the drug can greatly differ between birds and mammals, therebyresulting in therapy failure and/or serious side effects. Consequently, consideration of these limitationsand careful monitoring of the patient are needed to use psychoactive drugs responsibly in pet birds.    
Full text: 
pp 339-350
Review(s)

86 (5) pp 275

Title: 
Substrate use in horses during exercise – the ‘fasted’ compared to the postprandial state
Author(s): 
J. ROBYN, L. PLANCKE, B. BOSHUIZEN, C. DE MEEÛS, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
Training in the fasted state has beneficial effects on performance in the human athlete. In the horse,training in the fasted state is associated with an increased mobilization of non-esterified fatty acids(NEFA) as an energy source. This is in contrast with postprandial (grain-fed) training, during whichlipolysis is suppressed. A higher NEFA availability is thought to reduce muscle glycogen depletion andmuscle acidification. This could aid in delaying muscle fatigue. The equine gastrointestinal tract androughage rich diet do not allow a real ‘fasted’ state. Luckily, roughage does not induce high plasmainsulin peaks, and therefore does not have the same negative effects as grain feeding. Furthermore,the roughage-containing hindgut serves as a fluid and electrolyte buffer and continuously provides theliver with propionic acid, a precursor used in gluconeogenesis. In horses, unlike in human athletes,there is still a lot to discover when it comes to optimal pre-exercise feeding management throughoutcompetition and training. However, whatever approach is chosen, high quality roughage needs to be thekey ingredient of the equine diet. In sport horses with high energy demands, feeding good quality roughagemay be combined with fibre rich concentrates, pelleted roughages sources or vegetal oil insteadof starch rich concentrates to reach the energy requirements for intensive work. Last but not least,feeding multiple small meals throughout the day is preferred over feeding a larger meal twice a day.
Full text: 
pp 275-285
Review(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Effects of training on equine muscle physiology and muscle adaptations in response to different training approaches
Author(s): 
R. VERMEULEN, C. DE MEEÛS, L. PLANCKE, B. BOSHUIZEN, M. DE BRUIJN, C. DELESALLE
Abstract: 
It is well known that exercise induces chemical, metabolic and structural changes in muscles.However, the effect of the type of exercise on these changes has not been thoroughly studied inhorses yet, because of a lack of standardized study methods. In this review, the effect of threedifferent types of exercise on muscle adaptation and metabolic responses is investigated. Therequirements for power exercise are not the same as for low intensity exercise. Each type oftraining induces its own shift in muscle fiber typing, as well as in enzyme concentrations and (an)aerobic capacity. These physiological adaptations in response to training facilitate more efficientexercise and therefore increase performance. Hence, it is important to know the adaptations thatmuscles undergo in response to each type of exercise to optimize training management of sporthorses in function of the needs of the discipline in which they compete.
Full text: 
pp 224-231
Review(s)

2017 - 86 (4)

Title: 
Potential welfare issues of the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) at the retailer and in the hobbyist aquarium
Author(s): 
C.C.F. PLEEGING, C.P.H. MOONS
Abstract: 
Betta splendens is an extremely popular ornamental fish among hobby aquarists. It has aninteresting behavioral repertoire, particularly where male aggression and territoriality are concerned.The lack of scientific studies investigating optimal housing conditions in combinationwith the wide variety of commercially available husbandry products, raises questions about thewelfare status of these fish in captivity. In this article, an overview of the available literature onthe biology of the betta and general considerations of ornamental fish keeping is given, and environment-and animal-related factors with potential impact on the welfare of Betta splendensare examined. Although more research using biological and physiological indicators is needed,the following factors constituting welfare problems have been identified: an aquarium of limiteddimensions, prevalence of Mycobacterium spp. infection, aggression to and from conspecifics orother species in the same aquarium and the limited ability to escape, potential for stress due toprolonged visual contact between males in shops and during shows, and the lack of environmentalenrichment in the form of sheltering vegetation.
Full text: 
pp 213-223
Review(s)

2017 - 86(4)

Title: 
Microplastics: minuscule particles with big consequences?
Author(s): 
S. KNOLL, A. DECOSTERE, A.M. DECLERCQ
Abstract: 
Since the mass production of plastics, contamination of the marine environment with thesepersistent synthetic materials has become an ever-increasing problem. Lately, it has become clear thatmicroplastics play a big part in this. These small plastic particles (< 5mm) are ubiquitous in seawaterand sediments. There are various entryways, such as fragmentation of macroplastics and drainage ofprimary microplastic via wastewater. Recent studies have shown that microplastics may be ingested bynumerous marine organisms. This could result in diverse health effects, including mechanical injuryand cellular toxicity. Adverse effects of microplastics are possibly enhanced by the contamination ofthese plastic particles with toxic chemicals. Furthermore, microplastics and microplastic contaminantscould accumulate in the food chain, eventually affecting humans. Despite the growing number ofpublications on microplastics, there are still many unanswered questions regarding this topic. In thisarticle, the contemporary knowledge of microplastics in the marine environment is provided.
Full text: 
pp 203-212
Review(s)

86 (3) pp 148

Title: 
Diagnostic approach of the cryptorchid stallion
Author(s): 
L. DE LANGE, K. ROELS, C. VERVERS, M. VAN DE VELDE, P. CORTY, J. GOVAERE
Abstract: 
The diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses is often a challenge. Based on the history, clinicaland rectal examinations and ultrasonography, a definitive diagnosis is not always possible. Variousendocrinological diagnostic assays, such as the determination of testosterone, androstenedione,estrogens, urinary steroids and the anti-Müllerian hormone, which demonstrate the presence oftesticular tissue, have been described. These tests all have their advantages and disadvantages, whichare discussed in this article in order to help practitioners in the field.
Full text: 
pp 148-154
Review(s)

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