Original article(s)

English

86 (6) pp 361

Title: 
Oral supplementation of organic trace minerals to late-gestation double-muscled Belgian Blue dams: clinical and biochemical aspects
Author(s): 
H. GUYOT, J. MARTÍN-TERESO, W. LITJENS, B. BRUTSAERT, L. DESMET, G. CHELEUX, P. DUBREUCQ, F. ROLLIN
Abstract: 
Beef cattle are susceptible to trace element deficiencies. The goal of this trial was to studythe efficacy of dam supplementation with organic or inorganic trace minerals. Thirteen BelgianBlue farms divided into two groups per farm were investigated, resulting in a randomized blockdesign, with two treatments. Animals in treatment A group received a supplement containing50% organic and 50% inorganic selenium, zinc, and copper, while those in treatment B groupreceived 100% inorganic sources. Blood zinc (p=0.08), selenium in blood (p<0.01) and colostrum(p<0.01) were higher in group A. No difference (p>0.1) was found between treatments regardingthe incidence of disease or daily weight gain of the calves. Although the zootechnical performancewas equal for both treatments, supplementation with organic trace minerals resulted in a greaternutritional efficacy to sustain the selenium and zinc statuses of the Belgian Blue cattle, and alsoseemed to mitigate inflammation associated with cesarean section.
Full text: 
pp 361-371
Original article(s)

86 (6) pp 351

Title: 
MRI-based morphometric analysis in relation to Chiari-like malformation in brachycephalic canine breeds
Author(s): 
C.R. GORDON, K. MARIONI-HENRY, P. AMENGUAL, T. LIUTI
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences and correlations between brainand skull morphology and the clinical signs of brachycephalic dogs with and without Chiari-likemalformation (CLM). Various measurements were derived from magnetic resonance images ofthe brain and craniocervical junction of thirty brachycephalic dogs in a flexed-neck position.Each dog was assigned a clinical grade. The distance from the planum of the foramen magnum tothe pons was significantly reduced, providing evidence of craniocephalic disproportion similar tohuman patients with Chiari malformation type I. Cerebral length relative to cranial length wassignificantly increased in dogs with CLM compared with control dogs, supporting the hypothesisthat CLM is governed by a global overcrowding of the brain, dissimilar to the human condition.Significant correlations were identified between these measurements and the extent of cerebellarherniation. No significant differences or correlations were identified with clinical grade. This isthe first described morphometric analysis to use a strictly brachycephalic study population inclusiveof a control group free from CLM.
Full text: 
pp 351-360
Original article(s)

86 (2) pp 79

Title: 
Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy
Author(s): 
E. SEGERS, V. MARTLÉ, S. PIEPERS, L. VAN HAM, S.F.M. BHATTI,
Abstract: 
Inflammatory reactions in dogs are associated with systemic changes in serum, called the acutephase response; changes in the concentration of acute phase proteins in the serum take place.C-reactive protein (CRP) is a positive acute phase protein, which increases during inflammation.The role of inflammation in epilepsy remains unclear. In this study, the inflammatory responsein dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) was investigated. The aims of the study were: 1. to measureserum CRP concentrations in dogs with IE and in healthy dogs, 2. to measure serum CRPconcentrations in dogs with acute cluster seizures and in dogs with isolated seizures and 3. toobserve the evolution of serum CRP concentrations in time after the last seizure. This studyshowed no significant differences in serum CRP concentrations between dogs with IE (7.8 mg/l)and dogs of the control group (8.3 mg/l). Furthermore, the results showed higher mean serumCRP concentrations in dogs with IE exhibiting cluster seizures (11,8 mg/l) than in dogs withisolated seizures (5.7 mg/l). However, these results were not statistically significant (P = 0.077).Finally, no statistically significant decrease in serum CRP concentrations was seen with timeafter the last epileptic seizure in dogs with IE (P = 0.077).
Full text: 
pp 079-083
Original article(s)

86 (2) pp 73

Title: 
Presence of gastric Helicobacter spp. in feces and saliva from dogs and cats
Author(s): 
H. BERLAMONT, M. JOOSTEN, R. DUCATELLE, F. HAESEBROUCK, A. SMET
Abstract: 
Gastric Helicobacter species are present in the stomach of more than 50% of dogs and cats. Thesebacteria have also been associated with severe gastric pathologies in humans. The route of transmissionbetween pets and from pets to humans remains unclear, but it has been suggested that direct contact mightplay a role. In order to determine whether transfer might occur through contact with saliva and feces, thepresence of Helicobacter DNA was determined in oral swabs and feces of dogs and cats.In this study, 155 saliva samples and141 fecal samples were collected from 106 dogs and 58 cats. From22 dogs, a gastric biopsy sample was also collected, aiming to investigate whether the same Helicobacterspecies found in saliva and/or feces could also be detected in the stomach of these animals. All sampleswere screened for the presence of DNA from gastric Helicobacter species associated with dogs and cats,using species-specific qPCRs and amplicon sequencing.In 43% of the dogs and 41% of the cats, one or more positive samples were found. Helicobacter DNAwas detected in 29 % of the saliva samples, 37 % of the fecal samples and 41% of the gastric biopsies.Several dogs and cats were infected with more than one Helicobacter species. No clear correlationbetween the presence of a Helicobacter species in the stomach of dogs and the detection of this speciesin their saliva and/or feces was shown. Moreover, the present study did not allow to determine whetherthe detected Helicobacter DNA originated from viable Helicobacter bacteria, highlighting the need ofadditional studies in order to determine the importance of saliva and feces in transfer of these gastricHelicobacter species between animals and from animals to humans.
Full text: 
pp 073-078
Original article(s)

86 (1) pp16

Title: 
Evaluation of the ruminal function of Belgian dairy cows suspected of subacute ruminal acidosis
Author(s): 
F. LESSIRE, E. KNAPP, L. THERON, J.L HORNICK, I. DUFRASNE, F. ROLLIN
Abstract: 
Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producingdairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However,different feeding practices and herds’ production levels are found in Southern Belgium. This studyaimed to ascertain whether dairy cows of several herds from the south of Belgium (Wallonia) witha suspicion of SARA really did present too low ruminal pH values. Twenty-four herds were visitedand 172 cows were sampled using an oropharyngeal device to collect ruminal fluid, i.e. Geishauserprobe. On the samples, three tests were performed: pH measurement, methylene blue reductiontest and microscopic evaluation of protozoa vitality. Based on these analyses, no cows demonstratedpH values lower than 5.5 and, only ten cows could be considered at risk for SARA. By contrast, ineightteen cows, pH values higher than 7.0 were measured and ruminal inactivity was suspected. Inthis study, ruminal alkalosis appeared to be more frequently observed than SARA.
Full text: 
pp 16-23
Original article(s)

85 (6) pp 335-342

Title: 
The efficacy of chloroquine treatment of Giardia duodenalis infection in calves
Author(s): 
M. GULTEKIN, K. URAL, N. AYSUL, A. AYAN, C. BALIKCI, G. AKYILDIZ
Abstract: 
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of chloroquine treatment on cystexcretion in calves naturally infected with Giardia duodenalis. The calves were randomly assignedinto two groups based on placebo (group I, n=7 untreated control calves) or treatment (groupII, n=7 calves treated orally with 2.5 mg/kg chloroquine twice daily for five consecutive days).The G. duodenalis isolates were identified by molecular characterization with β-giardin nestedPCR and gene sequence analysis as assemblage A3. Cyst excretion was determined on days 0, 3,7 and 10, before and after treatment. Geometric means of the number of excreted cysts did notchange significantly in the control group during the trial. The reduction in cyst excretion afterchloroquine treatment was 99% on day 3 and 100% on days 7 and 10. Chloroquine treatment ismost probatly practically applicable, relatively inexpensive and highly effective against giardiosisin calves.
Full text: 
pp 335-342
Original article(s)

85 (5) pp 285

Title: 
Infectious bronchitis virus infections of chickens in Belgium: an epidemiological survey
Author(s): 
P. DE HERDT, M. DE GUSSEM, S. VAN GORP, R. CURRIE
Abstract: 
Between April 2012 and July 2015, cloacal and/or tracheal swab samples were collected from fourhundred and twenty-four Belgian chicken broiler, breeder and layer flocks. All flocks were kept forproduction purposes and presented clinical signs suggestive of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)infection. The samples were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to detectthe presence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) of IBV. When positive, approximately four hundred base pairs(bp) encoding for the hypervariable region of the IBV S1 protein were sequenced. Sequencing results,cycle threshold (Ct) values and vaccination history were used as criteria to try and distinguish vaccinestrains from field strains.Of all samples examined, 22.4% was negative. In 16.4% of the samples that did contain RNAfrom IBV, the genotype could not be determined. In most cases, this was due to the recovery ofRNA quantities below the lower limit of detection of the sequencing PCR. The remaining positivesubmissions predominantly revealed RNA from IBV strains that belonged to the 4/91–793B (46.8%),D388–QX (25.2%), D274-D207 (5.8%) and Massachusetts (4.0%) genotypes. Estimations indicatedthat approximately 58%, 11%, 37% and 46% of these detections, respectively, were vaccine strains.Infections with types CK/CH/Guandong/Xindadi/0903, Ukr/27/2011, NGA/295/2006 and Q1 wereobserved sporadically.The results indicate that IBV infections are highly prevalent in Belgian chickens and that at leasteight different IBV types were circulating during the monitored period. This underlines the necessityof providing flocks with a strong and broad protective immunity against IBV.
Full text: 
pp 285-290
Original article(s)

85 (3) pg 141

Title: 
The “Thunder Measure Vet Device”: an innovative tool to objectively score the body condition of dairy cows in the field
Author(s): 
T. DEWAELE, M. VAN EETVELDE, G. VERTENTEN, G. OPSOMER
Abstract: 
The scoring of the body condition at specific time points during the lactation cycle has proven tobe essential in the nutritional management of modern dairy herds. The ‘Thunder Measure (TM) VetDevice’ has recently been developed by Ingenera SA, Switzerland to accurately and objectively measurethe body condition score (BCS) of dairy cows in the field. Based on a smartphone app linked to alaser device, the system makes an analysis of three dorsal view photographs taken, for example, whencows are lined up in the feed alley. In the present study, the correlation and repeatability of the systemwere examined in comparison with the conventional visual measurement of BCS and ultrasonographicmeasurement of the backfat thickness (BFT). The conventional measurement of the BCS was done bya veterinary surgeon experienced in body condition scoring and by less experienced veterinary undergraduatestudents. The results obtained via the TM Vet Device were only moderately correlated withthe BFT measurements (r=0.38, P<0.001), but were highly correlated (r=0.82, P<0.001) and showedgood agreement with the BCS results obtained by the experienced veterinary surgeon. The BCS resultsobtained by the undergraduate students were highly variable, leading to a highly variable correlationwith the results gathered using the TM Vet Device (r=0.23 (P<0.05) to r=0.74 (P<0.001)). The repeatabilityof the results obtained by the device was very high (91%). Only the repeatability of the resultsobtained by the experienced veterinarian (93%) and the BFT measurement (96%) were higher. In leananimals, some overscoring by the device was noted in comparison with the scores given by the experiencedveterinary surgeon, although this overscoring diminished as the body condition score assignedby the veterinary surgeon increased.The ease to use and the accuracy of the results obtained allow the TM Vet Device to be considereda useful tool in the nutritional management of a modern dairy herd.
Full text: 
pp 141-149
Original article(s)

85 (2) pg 78

Title: 
Radiographic and ultrasonographic evaluation of the esophagus in the horse
Author(s): 
K. PALMERS, E. VAN DER VEKENS, E. PAULUSSEN, MT. PICAVET, B. PARDON, G. VAN LOON
Abstract: 
The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic and ultrasonographic appearanceof the esophagus of ten healthy horses. Contrast radiography showed variations in the long-axisshape of the esophagus at the thoracic inlet. Administration of a large volume contrast mediumby intubation showed stasis of contrast material for several minutes in two of the ten horses. Thewall thickness of the non-distended esophagus on ultrasound was 2.6 ± 0.3 mm with significantdifferences depending on the location. Distention of the esophagus by intubation or by a bolusof water or concentrate resulted in a decrease in wall thickness and it facilitated measuring withless variation. Stasis at the thoracic inlet was seen in five of the ten horses, when a water boluswas administered. Ultrasonographic evaluation of 100g spontaneously swallowed commercialconcentrate was better than fluid (water bolus or 2.5mL/kg contrast medium) administration viaintubation to assess esophageal motility at the thoracic inlet. Stasis seen at the thoracic inlet afterbolus administration by intubation should not be regarded as an abnormal finding, and swallowing,with the subsequent peristaltic wave, has a positive influence on the bolus passage time.
Full text: 
pp 078-086
Original article(s)

85 (1) pg 15

Title: 
Evaluation of the mini-FLOTAC technique for detection of gastro-intestinal parasites in large companion animals
Author(s): 
N. VAN DEN PUTTE, E. CLAEREBOUT, B. LEVECKE
Abstract: 
A new technique, mini-FLOTAC, has recently been developed for the microscopic diagnosis of infectionswith gastro-intestinal nematodes in domestic animals. In this comparative study of diagnostictechniques, the mini-FLOTAC technique was compared to the commonly used McMaster techniquefor the detection and quantification of gastro-intestinal parasites in livestock as well as for the evaluationof the time needed to perform the assays. One hundred fecal samples (78 horses, 11 bovines, 6sheep and 5 goats) were examined with both the mini-FLOTAC and McMaster technique. This revealedthat more infections with gastro-intestinal parasites could be diagnosed with the mini-FLOTACtechnique than with the McMaster technique, but the comparative study also showed a very high correlation(correlation coefficient = 0.90, p < 0.001) between both techniques regarding the number ofeggs per gram feces (EPG) detected. The time needed to examine the samples with the mini-FLOTACtechnique (13 minutes) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the time needed with the McMastertechnique (6 minutes). This difference in time also depended on the observed EPG value, as with highEPG values, the difference in time between both techniques increased even more. In conclusion, themini-FLOTAC technique can be preferred when an accurate diagnosis of a low infection level is necessary,e.g. to detect anthelmintic resistance. In other circumstances, the faster McMaster technique canbe considered as the preferable technique.
Full text: 
pp 15-22
Original article(s)

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