Original article(s)

English

88 (4) pp 201

Title: 
The role of experience in urine sediment analysis of dogs and cats
Author(s): 
J. PROVOOST, P. DEFAUW, S. DAMINET, L. DUCHATEAU, D. PAEPE
Abstract: 
Urinalysis plays an important role in diagnosing several diseases and as part of routine healthchecks of senior and geriatric patients. There is no solid data regarding the role of experience in themicroscopical examination of urine sediment of small animals. The purpose of this study was to investigatethe role of experience when examining urine sediment. In total, sediment of 27 urine samples(of 13 dogs and 14 cats) were microscopically examined independently by one experienced observer(the expert) and two unexperienced final-year, veterinary students. For most sediments, there was aweak agreement (low kappa value: 0-0.4) between the expert and the students, with the exception of amoderate agreement for struvite crystals (kappa value: 0.47). The agreement between the students wasalso weak, but slightly higher than the agreement between the expert and the students. In this study, itis shown that experience plays an important role in the correct examination of urine sediment.
Full text: 
pp 201-206
Original article(s)

88 (4) pp 192

Title: 
Comparison of two California Mastitis Tests with electronic cell count determination for the detection of intramammary infections in composite milk samples of dairy cows
Author(s): 
E. BIEBAUT, S. PIEPERS, D. VALCKENIER, S. DE VLIEGHER
Abstract: 
In dairy cattle, the milk somatic cell count is the most widely accepted indicator for the presenceof intramammary infections. The aim of this study was to compare the results of the electronic cellcounting on 179 composite milk samples with the results of two commercially available CaliforniaMastitis Tests (CMT), based on either the thickening of the solution or the thickening of the solution incombination with a color change.The most frequently isolated major pathogens in the milk samples were Streptococcus uberis andStaphylococcus aureus and the minor pathogens most isolated were the non-aureus staphylococci. Thesomatic cell count estimated with the CMT-tests corresponded well with the one obtained with theFossomatic™. For both CMT-tests, the test characteristics were mutually comparable as well as withthe one obtained with the electronic cell counting. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that bothCMT-tests can be used in the field to help detect cows suffering from an intramammary infection dueto major pathogens.
Full text: 
pp 193-200
Original article(s)

88 (3) pp 150

Title: 
Detection of bovine papillomavirus in an equine cell line as a contaminant
Author(s): 
Z. AKKUTAY-YOLDAR, T. OĞUZOĞLU, F. DOĞAN, V. ATASEVEN
Abstract: 
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are members of the family Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirusesare usually species-specific and epitheliotropic. Delta-BPVs are an exception to this rule in that theycan also infect fibroblasts and non-bovid ungulates. Cell cultures are essential for performing invitro studies, analysis of virus biology, vaccine production, tissue engineering and toxicity testing.In this context, cell line contamination constitutes a significant problem. In this study, variouscell lines (n=27) were assessed for potential BPV contamination. To this aim, DNA was extractedfrom cell cultures and then screened for the presence of papillomavirus L1 capsid gene DNAusing a consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system. Immunofluorescence (IF) stainingwas used for viral protein detection. Intriguingly, one cell line derived from equine dermis testedpositive by PCR and subsequent IF staining for L1. Amplicon sequencing followed by computedL1 DNA sequence alignment led to the identification of a new putative BPV type, revealing thehighest identities with Delta-BPV types 1 (76%) and 2 (73%). To the authors’ knowledge, thisis the first report on the presence of a putative BPV as a viral contaminant in cell cultures thatpossibly represents an unknown Delta-BPV.
Full text: 
pp 150-156
Original article(s)

88 (3) pp 137

Title: 
β-carotene and vitamin E in the dairy industry: blood levels and influencing factors – a case study in Flanders
Author(s): 
J. DE BIE, K. PROOST , H. VAN LOO, J. CALLENS, P.E.J. BOLS, E . FRANSEN, J.L.M.R. LEROY
Abstract: 
In this case study performed in Flemish dairy herds, it is shown that lactation stage, farmtype (grazing (fresh grass) or zero-grazing) and season are interrelated factors associated withcirculating β-carotene (bC) and Vitamin E (VitE) concentrations. The iCheck bC is an easy applicablecow-side test to evaluate a cow’s bC status. One third of the dairy cows in the study haddeficiencies in circulating bC and VitE, especially cows in early lactation and cows from zerograzingfarms. Fresh grass in the diet could not resolve the early post-partum decline in plasmabC and VitE. However, the bC and VitE statuses of dry cows were significantly better on grazingfarms. These findings can help updating antioxidant recommendations since it is clear that thereis a need for optimization of antioxidant nutritional management in the Flemish dairy industryin order to feed for optimal dairy cow health.
Full text: 
pp 137-149
Original article(s)

88 (2) pp 077

Title: 
Collection and cryopreservation of epididymal spermatozoa in dogs
Author(s): 
N. SIMONS, A. VAN SOOM, E. WYDOOGHE
Abstract: 
When a male dog is not able to ejaculate, epididymal spermatozoa can be used to artificially inseminatethe bitch. In the present study, two methods to collect epididymal sperm after castration werecompared, i.e. the float-up method and the aspiration method. With the float-up method, more spermatozoawere collected than with the aspiration method (1810±718.1 million versus 694±244.5 millionrespectively, p-value = 0.018). A trend towards a higher post-thaw motility was observed when usingthe float-up method compared to the aspiration method (52±9.4% versus 44±9.4%, p-value = 0.060).Semen samples collected with the float-up method showed more blood contamination than with theaspiration method; however, this seemed to have no effect on the quality and quantity of the semen. Itcan therefore be concluded that the float-up method is the method of choice when epididymal spermhas to be collected in dogs.
Full text: 
pp 077-082
Original article(s)

88 (2) pp 067

Title: 
Cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and behavioral effects of intravenous lidocaine in healthy, conscious horses and evaluation of the relationship with lidocaine and monoethylglycinexylidide serum concentrations
Author(s): 
A.SALCICCIA, D.M. LOPEZ AREVALO, A. MAES, S. CROUBELS, V. BUSONI, J. DETILLEUX, C. SANDERSEN, H. AMORY
Abstract: 
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of lidocaine/monoethylglycinexylidide (MEGX) and their effects on several systems in horses. Five healthy,conscious horses received a two-hour placebo intravenous infusion followed by a two-hour lidocaineinfusion (bolus of 1.3 mg/kg over ten minutes followed by a continuous rate infusion of0.05 mg/kg/min). Lidocaine and MEGX serum concentrations were sampled every ten to fifteenminutes during the experiment, and the presence of muscle fasciculations and loss of balance aswell as the respiratory, digestive and cardiovascular systems of the five horses were evaluated bymeans of different non-invasive methods. During the lidocaine infusion, the mean (± SD) lidocaineand MEGX concentrations were respectively 768.88 ± 93.32ng/ml and 163.08 ± 108.98 ng/ml. Theinfusion of lidocaine significantly influenced the presence of fasciculations, caused a statisticallybut non-clinically significant decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressures, which were bothcorrelated with lidocaine and MEGX serum concentrations, and it increased the duodenal contractionsfrequency, which was correlated with the serum lidocaine concentration. In this study,mild hypotensive and prokinetic effects of short-term lidocaine infusion were observed.
Full text: 
pp 067-076
Original article(s)

86 (6) pp 361

Title: 
Oral supplementation of organic trace minerals to late-gestation double-muscled Belgian Blue dams: clinical and biochemical aspects
Author(s): 
H. GUYOT, J. MARTÍN-TERESO, W. LITJENS, B. BRUTSAERT, L. DESMET, G. CHELEUX, P. DUBREUCQ, F. ROLLIN
Abstract: 
Beef cattle are susceptible to trace element deficiencies. The goal of this trial was to studythe efficacy of dam supplementation with organic or inorganic trace minerals. Thirteen BelgianBlue farms divided into two groups per farm were investigated, resulting in a randomized blockdesign, with two treatments. Animals in treatment A group received a supplement containing50% organic and 50% inorganic selenium, zinc, and copper, while those in treatment B groupreceived 100% inorganic sources. Blood zinc (p=0.08), selenium in blood (p<0.01) and colostrum(p<0.01) were higher in group A. No difference (p>0.1) was found between treatments regardingthe incidence of disease or daily weight gain of the calves. Although the zootechnical performancewas equal for both treatments, supplementation with organic trace minerals resulted in a greaternutritional efficacy to sustain the selenium and zinc statuses of the Belgian Blue cattle, and alsoseemed to mitigate inflammation associated with cesarean section.
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pp 361-371
Original article(s)

86 (6) pp 351

Title: 
MRI-based morphometric analysis in relation to Chiari-like malformation in brachycephalic canine breeds
Author(s): 
C.R. GORDON, K. MARIONI-HENRY, P. AMENGUAL, T. LIUTI
Abstract: 
The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences and correlations between brainand skull morphology and the clinical signs of brachycephalic dogs with and without Chiari-likemalformation (CLM). Various measurements were derived from magnetic resonance images ofthe brain and craniocervical junction of thirty brachycephalic dogs in a flexed-neck position.Each dog was assigned a clinical grade. The distance from the planum of the foramen magnum tothe pons was significantly reduced, providing evidence of craniocephalic disproportion similar tohuman patients with Chiari malformation type I. Cerebral length relative to cranial length wassignificantly increased in dogs with CLM compared with control dogs, supporting the hypothesisthat CLM is governed by a global overcrowding of the brain, dissimilar to the human condition.Significant correlations were identified between these measurements and the extent of cerebellarherniation. No significant differences or correlations were identified with clinical grade. This isthe first described morphometric analysis to use a strictly brachycephalic study population inclusiveof a control group free from CLM.
Full text: 
pp 351-360
Original article(s)

86 (2) pp 79

Title: 
Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy
Author(s): 
E. SEGERS, V. MARTLÉ, S. PIEPERS, L. VAN HAM, S.F.M. BHATTI,
Abstract: 
Inflammatory reactions in dogs are associated with systemic changes in serum, called the acutephase response; changes in the concentration of acute phase proteins in the serum take place.C-reactive protein (CRP) is a positive acute phase protein, which increases during inflammation.The role of inflammation in epilepsy remains unclear. In this study, the inflammatory responsein dogs with idiopathic epilepsy (IE) was investigated. The aims of the study were: 1. to measureserum CRP concentrations in dogs with IE and in healthy dogs, 2. to measure serum CRPconcentrations in dogs with acute cluster seizures and in dogs with isolated seizures and 3. toobserve the evolution of serum CRP concentrations in time after the last seizure. This studyshowed no significant differences in serum CRP concentrations between dogs with IE (7.8 mg/l)and dogs of the control group (8.3 mg/l). Furthermore, the results showed higher mean serumCRP concentrations in dogs with IE exhibiting cluster seizures (11,8 mg/l) than in dogs withisolated seizures (5.7 mg/l). However, these results were not statistically significant (P = 0.077).Finally, no statistically significant decrease in serum CRP concentrations was seen with timeafter the last epileptic seizure in dogs with IE (P = 0.077).
Full text: 
pp 079-083
Original article(s)

86 (2) pp 73

Title: 
Presence of gastric Helicobacter spp. in feces and saliva from dogs and cats
Author(s): 
H. BERLAMONT, M. JOOSTEN, R. DUCATELLE, F. HAESEBROUCK, A. SMET
Abstract: 
Gastric Helicobacter species are present in the stomach of more than 50% of dogs and cats. Thesebacteria have also been associated with severe gastric pathologies in humans. The route of transmissionbetween pets and from pets to humans remains unclear, but it has been suggested that direct contact mightplay a role. In order to determine whether transfer might occur through contact with saliva and feces, thepresence of Helicobacter DNA was determined in oral swabs and feces of dogs and cats.In this study, 155 saliva samples and141 fecal samples were collected from 106 dogs and 58 cats. From22 dogs, a gastric biopsy sample was also collected, aiming to investigate whether the same Helicobacterspecies found in saliva and/or feces could also be detected in the stomach of these animals. All sampleswere screened for the presence of DNA from gastric Helicobacter species associated with dogs and cats,using species-specific qPCRs and amplicon sequencing.In 43% of the dogs and 41% of the cats, one or more positive samples were found. Helicobacter DNAwas detected in 29 % of the saliva samples, 37 % of the fecal samples and 41% of the gastric biopsies.Several dogs and cats were infected with more than one Helicobacter species. No clear correlationbetween the presence of a Helicobacter species in the stomach of dogs and the detection of this speciesin their saliva and/or feces was shown. Moreover, the present study did not allow to determine whetherthe detected Helicobacter DNA originated from viable Helicobacter bacteria, highlighting the need ofadditional studies in order to determine the importance of saliva and feces in transfer of these gastricHelicobacter species between animals and from animals to humans.
Full text: 
pp 073-078
Original article(s)

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