87 (4) pp 188

Title: 
Risk factors for antimicrobial use in food-producing animals: disease prevention and socio-economic factors as the main drivers?
Author(s): 
J. BOKMA, J. DEWULF, P. DEPREZ, B. PARDON
Abstract: 

The European Union requests an urgent decrease in antimicrobial use (AMU) in food producinganimalsto reduce antimicrobial resistance in animals and humans and safeguard the efficacy ofantimicrobials for future generations. The identification of risk factors (RFs) for AMU is essentialto obtain a rapid reduction. The aim of this review was to summarize the current knowledge ofRFs for AMU in veal calves, pigs and poultry. Thirty-three observational studies were included.Well-identified RFs for an increased AMU are frequent purchase of animals, herd size (largeor small depending on the animal species), and a lack of selected biosecurity measures. Also inbeef breed calves, more antimicrobials are used than in Holstein calves. AMU is influenced bythe farmer, the veterinarian and by the integration. In general, socio-economic RFs are largelyunexplored. The causal factors for AMU are multiple and complex, with possible confoundingfactors and unidentified interactions. Additional knowledge of socio-economic drivers appearsparticularly urgent to create tailor-made guidelines and awareness campaigns for each sector.

Full text: 
pp 188-200
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